In its chronology of the years, for 1561 Wikipedia lists an odd entry for April 14: 'The citizens of Nuremberg see what appears to be an aerial battle followed by the appearance of a large black triangular object and a large crash (with smoke) outside the city. A news notice (early form of newspaper) was printed 10 days later (April 14) describing the event1|.'
Woodcut of a celestial incident over Nuremberg, Germany in 1561
Image taken from news 'broadsheet'
at Nuremberg, Germany, in April,
Some have explained the phenomenon
as a 'sundog' - ice crystals reflecting
sunlight. It is not clear if this
explanation would account for the
large black 'triangle'.
The incident seems to have come
to modern attention in C. G. Jung's
'Flying Saucers: A Modern Myth of
Things Seen in the Skies'.

Much attention has been given to this event as well as a similar event in Basle, Switzerland five years later in August, 1566. Well preserved news 'broadsheets' exist in German public archives of both events. Besides odd [woodcut] graphics the accompanying texts vividly describe astounding aerial phenomena of 'battles' and 'fiery crashes'. Some of the craft resembled crosses, some discs and some cylinders. Obviously a large black 'spear-shaped' object intervened late in the melee.

It is not within the scope of this work to explain what these events might have actually been, only to establish that it is believed that they did happen and are well documented. What is curious is that, at that time, these events were interpreted as being a religious warning to residents to repent of sin and to turn to God. Perhaps the appearance of 'crosses' emphasized this analysis.

Today the web is bulging with web sites explaining how these events represent UFO ['unidentified flying object' or 'extra-terrestrial spaceship'] incidents. They unanimously interpret it as a 'war in the skies' between various types of extra-terrestrial UFO's. Why 'alien spaceships' should be doing battle over Renaissance Europe is left unexplained.

If this author were to favor the former interpretation, that it was a call to repentance, he would surely be called a religious bigot, provincial, narrow minded. What has happened that the body politic has come to believe more in space aliens than in Divine manifestation?

As a Bible reader we Christians believe that the disciples saw Jesus ascend into heaven as written at the end of John's Gospel. We believe that Peter, James and John saw Moses and Elijah on the Mount of Transfiguration as described in Matthew 17. Surely Ezekiel saw the Merkabah chariot: the Divine Throne Chariot. Bible readers surely believe that Jacob saw a 'ladder' into heaven with angels ascending and descending as described in Genesis 28. Isaiah 6 says that he saw the Lord upon a throne high and lifted up, His train filling the temple.

Why would we, today, find it hard to believe that there was an aerial display, perhaps by angels and even demon spirits, perhaps a staged drama in order to remind European Christians not to lose sight of their faith in the burgeoning Renaissance of learning?

Gervase of Tilbury (England, ca. 1150 – ca. 1228) wrote a book, Otia imperialia2|, considered a 'bagful of foolish old woman's tales' by the philosopher Gottfried Leibniz, who edited parts of the manuscript3|.

The Condon Report [1968] on UFO's4|, section 5, chapter 1, 'UFOs in History', refers to this medieval manuscript thus: '1270 A. D. [sic; ?] Bristol, England: "In Otto Imperialia, Book I, Chapter XIII, Gervase of Tillbury wrote about an aerial craft over a city. The craft caught an anchor in a church steeple and a occupant of the ship scampered down a ladder to free the device. The man was stoned by a crowd and asphyxiated in the earth's atmosphere. The
`demon's body´ was said to have been burned." This story is to be found in several UFO books, and is quoted in Let's Face the Facts about Flying Saucers, (1967) by Warren Smith and Gabriel Green, President of the Amalgamated Flying Saucer Clubs of America5|.' Some reports quote Gervase as saying the Bishop forbade the congregation to harm the 'man' and the craft severed the anchor and 'sailed' away. This account states that the anchor was still embeded in the steeple at the time the author wrote.

Again we are forced to consider the contradiction: was the live figure perceived as a 'demon' or a 'space alien'? Was it a human figure? ...a 'spirit figure'? ...a strange 'alien' figure? At the time it was unquestionably perceived as a 'demon'. Today it is unquestionably perceived as an extra-terrestrial 'alien'.

To this author one of the greatest difficult to explain enigmas is the ruins and artifacts of Puma Punku [see Scission III.] Modern engineers have examined the complex - yet carefully cut and shaped - diorite stones, many of which are perfect duplicates of each other, and declared that they could not accomplish such a feat without computer-controlled diamond cutting devices. They claim that the only substance more durable than diorite is diamond. Others have claimed that they have reproduced the same results with simple tools6|.

Again, it is not within the scope of this work to determine what exactly occurred 'back in dim history'. By some unknown method someone was able to fabricate complicated otherwise unmatched stone work at some undetermined date at the Puma Punku site. Yet we find popular commentators today claiming that the only answer to the mystery is 'ancient aliens'.
Program image - History Channel

Program image from the
History Channel of the
series 'Ancient Aliens'

Perhaps they are right; however, where is the proof? Just the fact that we today cannot conceive how a 'primitive' society could accomplish such a mysterious feat is not proof that some advanced extra-terrestrial culture must be responsible. Where are the machining artifacts? The fact that all the deep sea oil drilling rigs are currently absent from the Gulf of Mexico does not mean that they were never there.

No less a respected scholar than the Egyptologist Flinders Petrie (3 June, 1853 – 28 July, 1942) believed that some sort of stone cutting machinery may have been used to fashion stone, and he displayed a stone with a groove that appears to be an accidental slip of a cutting blade7|.
Saw groove in stone - Giza Plateau
These probable saw grooves
are found in paving stones
east of the Great Pyramid,
Giza Plateau, Egypt.

What is the biggest argument against an advanced technological ancient culture, in favor of extra-terrestrial technicians? The widely believed doctrine that not only have humans been evolving over long periods of time but so also has their technology and their intelligence. As 'obvious' as this may seem, there might be evidence to the contrary; AND, that evidence might be suppressed by a few disciples of the Darwinian religion. This author labels Darwinism as 'religion' because its disciples believe by faith that they are right and thus have a right to silence all opposition.

Does this sound extreme? Just in the past few years we have seen proponents of anthropogenic global warming loudly demanding the right to do just that to their nay-sayers. The whole tawdry affair is reminiscent of the Inquisition suppressing any idea that the world was not flat, nor that the earth revolved around the sun. None of this should characterize 'science'. The word 'science' derives from the Latin word scientia meaning 'to know', 'to have knowledge'.

The Inca culture managed a huge empire that covered most of the Pacific coastal and Andean region of South America for centuries. Population estimates vary from about 4 million to 37 million people at its height. The Inca had no written language. How did they administer such a large area for so long? They raised taxes, recorded properties, built roads, defended against intrusions and maintained an education system. Furthermore, it is uncertain how much of the incredible megalithic structures they built such as those found at Cusco and Machu Picchu, Peru.

All that we know from the Colonial Spanish is that the Inca used the quipu, a system using a series of knotted cords that reportedly predated the Inca by a few millenia. Some quipu had up to 2,000 cords, each with many knots along their length. No one today is familiar with how the quipu system worked, how to 'read' it, due to colonial destruction. Would such a system carry the vast administrative burden of empire as well as the technology to build megalithic wonders and to keep track of a dual calendar [solar and lunar]?
Incan Quipu

An example of a fairly
complex Incan quipu
from the Larco Museum
in Lima, Peru

Perhaps the Inca had total recall [note how the article assumes the phenomenon is new.] One aspect of that today is called 'photographic memory' or eidetic memory, but it need not be limited to visual memories.

There are those that doubt that such a phenomenon is possible. Cognitive scientist Marvin Minsky writes, '...we often hear about people with "photographic memories" that enable them to quickly memorize all the fine details of a complicated picture or a page of text in a few seconds. So far as I can tell, all of these tales are unfounded myths, and only professional magicians or charlatans can produce such demonstrations8|.' The magazine Scientific American relates that the phenomenon today occurs most prevalently among children and can be interfered with by any sort of concurrent verbal utterance9|.
Book title on evolution of the mind

Oddly, this book is also sub-titled 'The Haphazard Construction of the Human Mind' in some listings. Of this university psychology professor Publsiher's Weekly writes that Marcus, 'keenly identifies the makeshift devices humans have created in order to contend with what he describes as "evolutionary inertia."' Booklist adds, 'Marcus latches onto the term kluge, which comes from the engineering world and is jargon for a fix that ain’t perfect but good enough.'

The prevalence of total recall today is not documented, but it is apparently quite rare. Some experts think the phenomenon is due to mis-wiring in the brain10|. If children show some eidetic ability in the absence of verbal utterance but tend to lose it with advancing age perhaps we are evolving away from total recall.

Archaeologists tell us that pre-Inca civilizations in the Andean region [Caral, Chavin, Nazca, Moche - to name a few] likely also used the quipu, perhaps back to 3,000 BCE. Certainly they built some fantastic megalithic structures, many astronomically aligned, requiring a learned system of mathematics.
Page 9 of the Dresden Codex (part)
Lower portion of page 9 of the
Dresden Codex showing the
classic Maya language written in
Mayan hieroglyphs (from the
1880 Förstermann edition).
This graphic is also identified as
page 9c, Almanac 28. The figures
are identified as Itzamna and The
Death God (God A); contains eight
day interval groups. [See p. 64 et fol.]

We know the Mayans of Mesoamerica had a hieroglyphic language with which they accomplished great technological and mathematical feats. How about pre-Mayan cultures? Could the Olmecs have possessed total recall in the absence of a written language? They had built a huge pyramid, discovered the mathematical concept of zero and apparently had a rather sophisticated calendar similar in some respects to the Mayan calendar.

It could have been quite possible to believe that the Olmecs had total recall until 2002; in 2002 possible language symbols were found dated to 650 BCE and later in 2006 more symbols believed to be language dated to 900 BCE11|. The latter is known as the Cascajal Block, a piece of serpentine stone that shows a set of 62 symbols, 28 of which are unique. However, its location when found is not certain and many of the characters displayed show no resemblance to any other Mesoamerican writing system, leading some scholars to be skeptical that it represents a true Olmec writing system12|.

Earlier we mentioned Chaco Canyon in northern New Mexico. We pointed out that they built large complex stone structures possibly of a ceremonial nature. We mentioned astronomical alignments of their building complexes and inter-linking roads. They had a stone 'solar' monument to mark the seasons. Yet there is no mention by scholars that they possessed any writing system.

We also earlier discussed Göbekli Tepe, which experts tell us may have taken two millenia to complete by primitives. Could such a vast complex have been developed over such a long period of time without some record of the design and the goal? This author cannot even go to the grocery store without a shopping list. It would seem that some adjustment needs to be made; either the construction by hunter-gatherers took a lot less time than thought, or somehow they were able to keep records to remind them of what they were trying to accomplish. . . or, they may have had total recall.

We are unlikely to ever know if such early civilizations had eidetic recall. We are more unlikely to ever believe it, because it would imply that these ancient cultures were possibly more 'intelligent', better mentally developed, than we are today - a Darwinian impossibility.

Capitalism as an economic pursuit dates to at least the second century BCE. Early historic accounts credit the beginnings to the Assyrian Empire13|, but it is likely that the eldest civilization [to current historians], Sumer, pursued a broadening trading area. Lying on the edge of sandy desert on the alluvial soils of Mesopotamia, Sumer needed to obtain a wide variety of goods and riches in order to sustain itself. Certainly they were awash in gold which would have had to come from distant mountains and mines. Petroleum and its by products such as bitumen ['pitch'], as well as grains and textiles, were Mesopotamian goods that were in demand from somewhat distant areas.

Certainly the extensive trade of the early second century BCE Assyrians is better documented. 'Caravans' existed in the region connecting Mesopotamia [and points east?] with Anatolia, Canaan, Egypt and via the Mediterranean Sea, Greece, Carthage and eventually Rome. The Mediterranean trade brings up the image of multiple sea routes established early in the history of civilization, especially in the eastern Mediterranean. We encounter a later example of this in the Apostle Paul's journey to Rome under military escort on a merchant vessel.

Such a vast area of exchange and trade gave rise to problems such as banditry and piracy. When monarchs, or wealthy merchants, sent trade missions abroad they often sent military protection against such opportunists. Also, just as in modern times when diplomacy and espionage fail to accomplish goals set by a state, military aggression was often utilized by kings and merchant 'unions' when trade advantages could not be established otherwise.

Perhaps this author will be forgiven should he wrongly posit that modern civilization really developed on the back of capitalism and enterprise, and that that is true from the earliest days of advanced civilizations. It continues in various aspects right up to modern times.

The competition of seeking technological advantage has given rise to global adventures today, and that is carried out on a principle of 'free trade' capitalism. While war can give rise to advancing technology, it cannot turn it into profit without trade.

It would seem that the bias of Darwinism has led many in the world to believe that the answer to global growth is no longer 'free enterprise' carried on by capitalistic societies. Rather, there is aggressive argument in today's 'global economy' that governments can carry on trade best, and socialism / communism [Marxism] yields better social end results than freely practiced capitalistic trade. Pure capitalism, we are told, only gives rise to greed, aggression and monopolistic wealth. By these thinkers, the past has proven that capitalism only leaves large portions of society in poverty and want while a rich 'ruling class' turns a blind eye.

Some of this is true, and has always been true - and will always be true, dictated by human nature. Jesus said, 'The poor you have with you always.' Modern politicians can take advantage of this by making the populace think that they have no chance to enjoy wealth and leisure without the intervention of... well, politicians. History has repeatedly shown that there is no way to confidently predict where wealth will occur, nor where failure will occur. Luck and circumstances have contributed greatly to such capitalistic outcomes.

Some years ago this author took occasion to write the late and renowned Sumerologist, Samuel Noah Kramer. The subject involved a Sumerian word, a cosmological / social concept set in the center of Sumerian thinking, one the scholar claimed they were unable to accurately translate. Still, because they had analyzed the rest of Sumerian laws and cosmology, the word's precise definition seemed less important.

In Chapter 13 of his book, History Begins at Sumer, Dr. Kramer writes this observation:
    The more mature and reflective Sumerian thinker had the mental capacity of thinking logically and coherently on many problems, including those concerned with the origin and operation of the universe. His stumbling block was the lack of scientific data at his disposal. Furthermore he lacked such fundamental intellectual tools as definition and generalization, and had practically no insight into the processes of growth and development, since the principle of evolution, which seems so obvious now, was entirely unknown to him14|.' [emphasis added]

This author pointed out that such an analysis was unlikely to ever yield the translation of the term in question, because the implications were so unsettling as to force a rethinking of the whole Sumerian pantheon of gods. The museum staff responded with a terse letter suggesting that a book entitled The Intellectual Adventure of Ancient Man15| might prove helpful to this writer's understanding. It is published by the prestigious Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago.

Thinking that an exchange of ideas was being initiated, the book was purchased and read - almost. Early in the introduction, 'Myth and Reality', it is stated, 'The ancients, like modern savages. . .' This author read on to about page 50, but it was obvious that our two approaches to viewing ancient man were irreconcilable. Admittedly, the previous statement is unfairly taken out of context, and some well-considered thought was embodied in the book; still, our views were simply incompatible. Some quotes from the text might prove revealing. 'Primitive man has only one mode of thought, one mode of expression, one part of speech - the personal.' 'Primitive man simply does not know an inanimate world.' 'Ancient man had not thought out an answer; an answer had been revealed to him.'

To this author it seems that the difference of approach is simply the difference of a scientific view vs a spiritual view. Just as the aerial phenomenon at Nuremberg mentioned earlier elicited a contemporary response of spiritual warfare in the skies, and today is scientifically explained by warfare between competing extra-terrestrials, it seems that ancient man has simply been minimized by evolution.

In the first paragraph to Chapter 19 Dr. Kramer refers to the Bible as a 'vibrant and dynamic literary creation16|.' Admitting that the Hebrew Bible shared heavily with ancient Sumerian textual 'resemblances', the Sumerian scholars were still unable to work backwards and analyze Sumerian cosmology in light of Old Testament revelations. Again, this could be the bias of Darwinism, the concept that things are almost always moving forward, and rarely moving backwards. In other words, they might have shared a common source.

After all, when we think of 'ancient man', we are addressing those that built the Great Pyramid, the Hanging Gardens of Babylon, the huge megalithic structures at Göbekli Tepe and Stonehenge, the enigmatic 'architectural' stones at Puma Punku. The authors of The Intellectual Adventure of Ancient Man believe that the pyramids were a conceptual cosmological recreation of the primeval hill on which original primitive life first crawled out of the primordial soup17|. To the spiritual mind this secular view approximates complete dehumanization and renders humans as simply animals, just the same as a lion or a monkey.
The hill as pyramid

Hill or pyramid?

We see this drastic difference in philosophy all throughout modern life. To the believers in evolution there are no moral absolutes, because animals are not bound by moral absolutes; they are not bound by anything but instinct. Recently this author heard a leading educator directing children to 'follow their own moral code.' To the spiritual mind, this concept equates with total anarchy and consequential societal destruction. . . and one suspects that that will be the ultimate outcome.

        [All web links acquired in Summer of 2014]
1| 1561, From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia: The information is
     footnoted to: news notice - Link to Zurich Library digital archive (2 pages) ( )
2| 1210-1214 CE; Gervase of Tilbury, Otia Imperialia; Oxford Medieval Texts, Oxford (2002).
3| In his Scriptores rerum Brunsvicensium, vol. I; (Hanover, 1710).
4| Dr. Edward U. Condon, Scientific Study of Unidentified Flying Objects (Conducted by the University
     of Colorado under contract No. 44620-67-C-0035 With the United States Air Force), 1968. Digital
     edition © 1999 by National Capital Area Skeptics (NCAS): .
5| Ibid, .
6| While the poster eckersonian seemed to have
     agreed with this author about keeping an open mind about the enigmas of Puma Punka, the 'expert'
     appears arrogant and condescending without offering any pertinent scientific argument or evidence.
7| Further see: Also see: By Christopher P.
     Dunn, Advanced Machining in Ancient Egypt, et fol.
8| Marvin Minsky, Society of Mind; Simon & Schuster, p. 153; (1998).
9| Alan Searleman, 'Is there such a thing as a photographic memory? And if so, can it be learned?';
     Scientific American, March 12, 2007. Also see:
10| Andrea Goldstein, 'Photographic Memory: A Look at Eidetic Imagery in the Brain'; Serendip, April,
     2006. See at:
11| Mary Pohl, Kevin O. Pope, and Christopher von Nagy, 'Olmec Origins of Mesoamerican Writing';
     Science 298 (5600): 1984–1987; (2002).
12| Karen O. Bruhns, Nancy L. Kelker, et. al., 'Did the Olmec Know How to Write?'; Science,
     9 March 2007; Vol. 315 no. 5817 pp. 1365-1366. Also see:
13| David Warburton, 'Macroeconomics from the beginning: The General Theory, Ancient Markets, and
     the Rate of Interest'; Paris: Recherches et Publications, p. 49; 2003.
14| Samuel Noah Kramer, 'History Begins at Sumer: Twenty-seven "Firsts" in Man's Recorded History';
     1959/2ed , 1956/1ed (25 firsts), 1981/3ed (39 firsts); University of Pennsylvania Press,  p. 81; (1959).
15| Henri Frankfort, et al., 'The Intellectual Adventure of Ancient Man: An Essay on Speculative Thought
     in the Ancient Near East', Chicago: University of Chicago Press; (1977).
16| Op. cit., p. 143.
17| Op. cit., pp. 21-22, etc.

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