What we find in our 'post-modern' context is that the concept of 'evolution' pervades our very perception of our world, our environment. The term 'evolution' appears in all sorts of communications from business documents to commercials to academic papers. The idea of 'evolve'  appears in everyday conversation.

Entering the word evolving in an internet search engine returns 95 million returns - and that is just that one participle of the idea of 'evolve'. Returns include 'our evolving universe, evolving alcohol treatment, evolving "intelligence systems", evolving Texas, evolving Lindsay Lohan, evolving families, the evolving Olympic athlete, evolving self, evolving horizons, evolving technology.'

Moreover, the list includes 'evolving health care, evolving landscapes, evolving nutrition, evolving thoughts, evolving minds, evolving wisdom, evolving logic, an evolving planet.' The Constitution of the United States is termed an 'evolving document'.

The deceit involved in the idea of evolution is that there is a line of continuum, that little by little things have changed until we arrive to where we are today. A thousand years ago we were a little less 'developed' and five thousand years ago we were closer to being 'primitive'. A hundred thousand years ago we were closer to being apes.

So important is it to prove this process that some scientists have prostituted their professional integrity by falsifying evidence or jumping to outrageously unsupportable conclusions based on a single piece of bone. Such antics makes the casual observer wonder if the whole evolution theory hasn't evolved into a religion.

This author is not the only student of history to wonder if advanced civilizations might have existed in the dim past. We have already presented some evidence that there may have been some technological anomalies in ancient history that beg for explanation. That explanation has not been forthcoming because historians touching such controversial evidence becomes comparable to touching the 'third rail' of the electric train.

Nowhere is this fearful suppression of evidence and explanational theory been more prevalent than in ancient Egypt. For well over a century the carving of the famous Great Sphinx of Gizeh has been ascribed to the Fourth Dynasty, from ca. 2650–2480 BCE. The appearance of the face of the Sphinx is believed to be that of the pharaoh Khafra [approximately 2558 - 2532 BCE], the reputed builder of the Second Pyramid at Gizeh. A stele was found at the site of the Great Sphinx with an inscription by Thutmose IV from about 1400 BCE.
Great Sphinx with Thutmose 'Dream Stele' between paws.This picture shows the
'Dream Stele' ascribed
to Thutmose IV placed
where found: between
the paws of the Great
Sphinx. The horizontal
layering seen on the
body below the head is
due to wind erosion, i.e.:
blowing sand. The 'paws'
have been repaired in
modern times. Careful
examination of the rock
'walls' in the background
shows vertical scoring of
the rock.

In 1990 Dr. Robert M. Schoch of Boston University, with a PhD in Geology and Geophysics from Yale University, studied the bust of the Sphinx and its base, which is believed to have been repeatedly buried in the desert sands over the centuries. From 1925 to 1936 Émile Baraize accomplished the complete excavation of the entire Sphinx.

Dr. Schoch noted severe erosion on the base of the Sphinx, saying, 'On the body of the Sphinx, and on the walls of the Sphinx Enclosure (the pit or hollow remaining after the Sphinx’s body was carved from the bedrock), I found heavy erosional features that I concluded could only have been caused by rainfall and water runoff1|.'
Vertical erosion 'scoring' of rock at Great Sphinx
Dr. Schoch's picture of the walls from the earliest excavations around the Great Sphinx - from which the rock for the monument was
quarried; it clearly shows vertical erosion scars that he claims could only have been caused by heavy rainfall.

Since the Sphinx exists in an arid desert environment, and since the base had repeatedly been covered with sand [documented back to at least 1400 BCE], Dr. Schoch was compelled to consider when the structure could have been exposed to so much water erosion. He concludes that the original structural carving would have to date back from 5,000 to 9,000 BCE. He concedes that the upper bust portion of the monument could have been carved from the original structure some time later.

Egyptologists were in an uproar. 'They were sure that sophisticated culture, what we call civilization, did not exist prior to about 3000 or 4000 B.C.2|' Subsequently this academic refuge was to crumble with the discovery of megalithic structures at Göbekli Tepe in the Anatolian region of Turkey, dated to the early Neolithic, approximately the 10th millennium BCE.

Near Göbekli Tepe is another site - possibly related - Nevalı Çori, where a sphinx said to be the oldest one known in existence is dated to about 9500 BCE. In an earlier scission we learned that the megalithic site of Nabta Playa developed in southern Egypt at a time, approximately 8000 to 9000 BCE, when rainfall was common in what is now Egyptian desert. This would seem to add credence to Dr. Schoch's theory that the original Sphinx structure could date back to the early Neolithic period.

The point of developing this scenario concerning the Sphinx here is to demonstrate the incredible resistance in academia to push back the historical envelope beyond older norms. Of course, such professional resistance is somewhat normal without compelling proof to change accepted norms. However, at the time of this writing this controversy still rages concerning the potential technologies in evidence in ancient Egypt.

We discussed earlier the intrusion of the data from Göbekli Tepe and how its incredible scope is being attributed to 'hunter-gatherers', presumably because there is no evidence that mankind had evolved beyond that stage of development in the early Neolithic. Is not the 'evidence' the fact that the structure exists? Apparently not, since we are told that these hunter-gatherers spent two thousand years building the site, and this without any writing or science.
Rock carvings on rock pillars
These pictures of carvings on the rock
pillars of G
öbekli Tepe were taken from
Wikipedia. Such artistic endeavor seems
unlikely for a near-subsistence human
survival circumstance. The animal on the
right-side column has not ever been
confidently identified. This author's son
wonders if it could be a snake prior to
losing its legs and left to crawl upon its

The whole portrait presented by historians concerning Göbekli Tepe is tautologically impossible. If these builders were hunter-gatherers - a class of people daily involved in hunting and gathering food and hunting shelter for the night, people with no agriculture - where did they find the time to work in heavy construction? If some 'hunted and gathered' so that others might work on construction and have their families cared for, then we are talking about a communal interdependent social structure which, by definition, is not necessarily a hunter-gatherer society.

The implication is that the people involved with Göbekli Tepe were able to produce surpluses, and thus it is a stretch to compare them with social structures that nearly approximate caveman conditions. The term 'hunter-gatherer' does not preclude people living in small villages and producing surpluses, but it is a stretch of the concept as presented. It is certainly a stretch to conceive of such a social structure supporting a work force that can produce a megalithic complex. In order to conform with current historical theory we have to believe that they dabbled at this task for two thousand years while still hunting and gathering. They accomplished this awesome project with no written language, no ruling governing structure, no blueprints, no written specifications - and managed this over two millennia.

This author is forced to assume that the reasons given that Göbekli Tepe, Nevalı Çori and Nabta Playa could not be built by developed societies is because of Darwin's theory of evolution. The scientists demand to know where is the evidence of such advanced development. The challenge is reasonable, although the visible evidence of what they accomplished is certainly worthy of consideration.

The noted Egyptologist, Sir William Flinders Petrie, 1853 - 1942, carefully noted advanced working of the hardest stone in the structures he examined both at Gizeh and other Temple structures. He suggested that certain stone artifacts can only be accounted for by presuming machining and 'jewelled' cutting mechanisms. For long decades such evidence and such theorizing was more or less ignored; once again, Egyptologists demanded to know where the machine artifacts are to be found.

The archaeological evidence is limited to stone hammers, copper chisels and other late Neolithic / early Bronze Age tools. The argument for advanced machining has been traditionally rejected. Nonetheless, attempts to duplicate some of the stone carvings with the simplistic tools of record have been shown to be dubious at the least, impossible in some cases. Like the enigmatic site of Puma Punku, mentioned earlier in this work, the evidence is there for all to see, but the tools used to accomplish the work are missing from the record.

In order to close this gap some observers, possibly influenced by dogmatic evolutionary concepts, have proposed that the tools used in the forming of ancient monuments are not upon this Earth because they were never 'of this Earth'. They postulate that these mysteries are not so mysterious if we just credit extra-terrestrial 'aliens' with doing the work - perhaps while they were vacationing here on Earth. After accomplishing all these technological wonders in Earth's ancient times these aliens returned to their mundane extra-terrestrial existence.

The lack of archaeological evidence is no more or less supportive of their views than it is of views such as Petrie's. The result is unavoidable confusion in the historical disciplines. With a refusal to accept the possibility of devolution - loss of a culture and technology - some sort of advanced knowledge from somee extra-terrestrial source, other than the supernatural 'gods' of ancient record, must be postulated.

What sort of evidence should we look for in order to prove that there may have been somewhat advanced civilizations in our ancient past? Unfortunately our intellect turns immediately to our Darwinian legacy. We look for machine lathes, diamond cutting tools, electric generators, computers. . . the sort of tools that our own high technology has developed over the countless centuries.

Thus we might be looking right at the tools that accomplished such amazing feats in the past and dismiss them as dross. We are so convinced of the 'rightness' of our evolved path that we cannot conceive of any other workable technology. Those who believe in extra-Earth visitors look at the destruction of Sodom and Gomorrah or Mohenjo-daro and say that they imply a nuclear explosion. Why? Are atomic weapons the only sort of energy with such destructive power?
Lot and daughters flee destruction of Sodom
Destruction of Sodom and Gomorrah by John Martin, 1852. Lot and
his daughters appear to have left Lot's wife behind. Some interpret
this 'explosive' destruction to be a nuclear blast.
Painting at Laing Art Gallery, Newcastle upon Tyne.

Consequently we look at the 800+ ton trilithon stone behemoths at Baalbek, Lebanon and scratch our heads, figuring how many thousands of slaves it might have taken, along with how many wooden 'rollers' would be required to move and lift these blocks of stone. The fact that we cannot come up with a practical answer does not deter us from imagining what tehnology we would use to accomplish the herculean tasks that challenge us from the dim past.

Some people believe that there is power in 'crystals'; some believe that there is power in the deep recesses of our minds; some believe that there are cosmic forces that we are as yet unaware of. A good example is the modern mythos that has grown up around the 'crystal skulls'. The whole subject is drowned in controversy and science has, generally, rejected them as being likely 'modern' in manufacture.

The most popular such myth is that there are 13 of these crystal skulls connected with the Mayan Calendar date of December, 2012 [see calendar at the beginning of this work.] On the date of the completion of the Mayan b'ak'tun-cycle in 2012 these skulls will manifest some 'unearthly' power3|. Whether this is true will have to wait for the expected event. However, what if there is some power latent in crystals - whether that is true of these crystal rellics or not? We are all familiar with quartz-movement clocks and watches all of which use crystals for timing oscillators that are precise over many months, even years. The whole 'semiconductor' technology and high density circuit integration is based on 'rare earths' which are only recently being copiously cracked for practical use.

What if the evidence of high technology from the distant past was now just a pile of dust? Would we overlook it? More than likely.

Will our evolutionary bias force us to reject advanced mental powers in a more primitive people? Earlier in this work we considered the possibility of 'total recall' among the ancients, making writing unnecessary. What evidence could we produce from distant times of such a mental faculty? Perhaps just the accomplishments of the ancients without any writing is the evidence we are looking for. Would modern science accept that? It seems unlikely [see Scission I].

How odd that we can consider the unusual phenomena of the celestial battles observed by the citizens of Nuremberg, Germany and Basle, Switzerland in the 16th century, mentioned in Scission V, and arrive at an opposite conclusion to that of those contemporary with the events. Our evolutionary bias causes us to immediately jump to an idea of extra-terrestrial warfare - for no apparent reason since nothing on the ground changed - and reject any idea of a 'spiritual' manifestation with a moral message. Yet many believe what they read in their Bibles, and many are attracted to entertainment shows about 'hauntings' and other supernatural phenomena.

What cosmic forces might we tap into and accomplish wondrous things? Nicola Tesla studied the Earth's magnetosphere and imagined great power such as evidenced by the 'Northern Lights'. This source of energy is being researched by the The High-Frequency Active Auroral Research Program, or HAARP4|. The HAARP program operates a major sub-arctic facility, named the HAARP Research Station, near Gakona, Alaska on a site owned by the Air Force. Using a huge antenna array HAARP is experimenting with using the ionosphere for communications and perhaps other purposes.
HAARP antenna array

Graphic representation of the HAARP antenna array in Gakona, Alaska. There are reports that the Air Force is discontinuing the HAARP research program.

Radio frequency waves can be transmitted into the ionosphere by HAARP effecting a huge amplification of their signals, and such effects can be measured and calibrated. By modulated heating of the auroral electrojet5| extremely low frequencies can also be generated - as low as 0.1 Hz - a feat that would otherwise require unreasonably long antennas. These low frequencies, called VLF [very low frequencies] and ELF [extremely low frequencies], are modulated and amplified in the atmosphere and are proabably useful in military communications. Many speculate on other purposes of the HAARP research, such as global weather modification, but the science has not admitted to such activities.

Could such amplification of cosmic forces, such as the solar wind and HAARP, account for the movement of huge blocks of stone in the distant past? Certainly it has been proven that sound waves can levitate objects6|. As evidenced by a bass drum low frequencies can be quite 'moving' on the human body.

One subject fraught with controversy is the occurrence of optical lenses in ancient times. These rock crystal and glass objects, reportedly numbering over 450, exist in various museums7|. The problem arises that many researchers have put them away in museum drawers classed as 'jewelry' or 'trinkets'. Most of those that appear to be convex lenses only magnify 2x or a little better. However, one lens found in 1983 in a cave on Mount Ida in Crete is said to date to the 5th century BCE and magnifies 7x with clarity, and up to 20x with some distortion8|.

Those with low magnification are considered to have been used to start fires9|, but it seems likely that their ability to magnify could not have been ignored. In the 1990's an ivory-handled knife was found at Abydos, Egypt with such a microscopic carving that it is considered impossible that some magnification was not used10|.

One of the earliest finds, now in the British Museum, was in 1850 by Sir John Layard called the Nimrud Lens. It is considered of such low quality as to fail as an optical lens. Yet some ask if it implies the use of telescopes11|. Professor Giovanni Pettinato of the University of Rome points out that the Assyrians could not have known about the moons of Saturn without some optical magnifying aid12|.
Sumerian cylinder seal and artist's renderingThis rough picture of a Sumerian cylinder seal and artist's rendering is interpreted by some as illustrating the rings of Saturn and other features of our solar system.
In the 1860's English Orientalist George Rawlinson wrote, 'There is said to be distinct evidence that they [the Chaldeans] observed the four satellites of Jupiter, and strong reason to believe that they were acquainted likewise with the seven satellites of Saturn. Moreover, the general laws of the movements of the heavenly bodies seem to have been so far known to them that they could state by anticipation the position of the various planets throughout the year. In order to attain the astronomical knowledge which they seem to have possessed, the Babylonians must undoubtedly have employed a certain number of instruments . . . It has generally been assumed that they were wholly ignorant of the telescope. But if the satellites of Saturn are really mentioned, as it is thought that they are, upon some of the tablets, it will follow—strange as it may seem to us—that the Babylonians possessed optical instruments of the nature of telescopes, since it is impossible, even in the clear and vapor-less sky of Chaldaea, to discern the faint moons of that distant planet without lenses13|.'
Babylonian seal image - showing an astronomer?
This image taken from a Babylonian cylinder seal, plus an interpretive drawing, is taken by some to portray an astronomer gazing through a lens at the heavens.

Similarly a Babylonian seal is said to show an astronomer looking through a lens at the heavens. In the 8th century BCE the Egyptians used a 'glass' magnifying lens to create some hieroglyphics14|. About 424 BCE the Greek comic playwright Aristophanes wrote in his play 'The Clouds' about a burning crystal:
    STREPSIADES: Have you ever seen a beautiful, transparent stone at the druggists', with which you may kindle fire?
    SOCRATES: You mean a crystal lens.
    STREPSIADES: That's right. Well, now if I placed myself with this stone in the sun and a long way off from the clerk, while he was writing out the conviction, I could make all the wax, upon which the words were written, melt15|.

Pliny the Elder (23–79 CE) mentions that Romans used 'burning-glasses'. He also mentions Nero using some sort of optical aid ['emerald'] to watch the gladiatorial fights16|. Viking lenses dating to the 11th or 12th century are on display in the Visby museum [Gotland Island, Sweden]; they are elliptical convex and believed to have been turned on a lathe. Dr. Olaf Schmidt, of Aalen University in Germany believes, however, that they could be much older and made in ancient Byzantium or Eastern Europe17|.
Greek picture of a telescope?This picture appears on the cover of a book, The Crystal Sun18|, by Robert Temple; the author has a degree in Oriental Studies from the University of Pennsylvania. Temple claims that this is a picture of a fragment of pottery from the 5th century BCE on public display in the Acropolis Museum in Athens. He claims the fragment, excavated near the Acropolis, portrays a Greek peering through a telescope; he further claims that the piece, on display for 20 years, has been totally overlooked by the academic community.
Monks of the 11th century cut glass orbs in half, forming a plano-convex lens, and called them 'reading stones'. Over time it was discovered that thinner lenses magnified more effectively. Eyeglass lenses were believed to have been invented in Italy in the 1280's. The microscope, a compound optical device, was invented about 1595, and the telescope reputedly followed closely in 1608, both developed by optical device makers in the Netherlands.

These ancient Mesopotamian, Egyptian and Grecian rock crystal and glass pieces have been sugested as lenses for over 150 years, yet they have received little or no serious attention, often stored away in museum drawers. One can only wonder if the relatively late recorded development of eyeglasses, microscopes and telescopes in modern times has frightened historians from accepting an older technology due to evolutionary bias.

One ancient object that has not suffered from oppressive bias lately is the now famous 'Antikythera Mechanism'. Discovered by divers in 1900 salvaging an ancient ship wreck off of the Greek island of Antikythera, it languished in a museum as an impossible anachronism for half a century. Fortunately, with advancing technological tools such as x-ray, the anomalous chunk of rock with embedded bronze gears was resurrected. In 1951 Derek J. de Solla Price, an English physicist, became interested in the device and attempted a reconstruction. He termed it 'an ancient Greek clockwork calculator19|.'
Possible gearing of Antikythera Mechanism.

of the
gearing of the

The device has been dated to the first century BCE based partly on inscription writing in Koine Greek, the common international form used at that time. Dr Price estimates there are at least 30 gears operated by a hand crank. Turning the crank set the desired date and allowed all the interlocking gears to turn. Reportedly the device would then calculate the positions of the Sun, the Moon and the planets, also moon phases and eclipse cycles.

Speculation on the origin of the design ranges from the Greek astronomer and mathematician Hipparchus, who had calculated the positions of the Moon and its cycles, to Greek engineer and inventor Archimedes, considered by some the greatest mathematician of all time.

As an artifact the device consists of 82 separate fragments found at the site of the shipwreck; only six of those fragments contain gears or inscriptions. It seems reasonable that any reconstruction would be somewhat interpretive.

The device was surely immortalized in the public mind by oceanographer Jacques-Yves Cousteau, who visited the original wreck site in 1978 searching for more remains of the Antikythera device; he found none, but featured the adventure on his popular television series 'The Undersea World of Jacques Cousteau'.

The National Archaeological Museum of Athens displays the Antikythera mechanism, accompanied by a reconstruction made and donated to the museum by Dr. de Solla Price.


In our dim and forgotten past were we visited by extra-terrestrial beings, or were we a resourceful and inventing people achieving highly technical solutions to daunting challenges? Did we stand ape-like in awe as advanced beings landed before our eyes and performed magical feats beyond our wildest dreams? Or was necessity the mother of invention? Did we accomplish incredible advances in technology only to have natural catastrophes or wars wipe all that out and set us back thousands of years?

Why did the Maya Indian culture build huge complex cities and after a few centuries just walk away and abandon them to live in the jungle? Why did the builders of Göbekli Tepe, whoever they were, spend all the effort and time to build such a megalithic complex only to cover it over in sand and walk away without a trace? Why did the builders of the structures of Chaco Canyon or the Anasazi / Pueblo builders of cliff dwellings in the American southeast simply move out of historical record?

The 5th century BCE Athenian statesman Solon traveled to see the wonders of Egypt according to ancient historians Herodotus and Plutarch. Plato tells us that Solon talked to Egyptian priests at Neith's temple in Sais. One priest, Plutarch says one named Sonchis, told Solon that his city of Athens had been in a great war 9000 years earlier, about 9500 BCE. He said that the Greeks, lacking a written language and therefore lacking good record keeping - which the Egyptians proudly pointed to their hieroglyphic columns and walls in their temples - had completely lost their great history and their achievements.

Is this what happened to other civilizations in the distant unrecorded past? Are the enigmatic artifacts that we ponder - and forget - in dusty museums evidence of high cultures that once thrived upon the earth and suddenly disappeared? Did the records perish with those civilizations, or did they not need records since they possessed total recall? Were their tools only stone axes, or did they use types of energy that we have yet to discover in order to accomplish Herculean feats? . . .types of energy that we are incapable of utilizing due to our modern biases?

Today, all over the world, we have become cultures of digital memories. The technolgy of memory storage has progressed rapidly so that trillions upon trillions of 'bytes' can be stored in a relatively small space. We have become dependent on this technology in order to be delivered from paper records and their massive storage problems. Yet one EMP [electro-magnetic pulse: i.e. an atomic explosion] can wipe out vast amounts of data and the technology that accesses the data devices. Beyond EMP's, are there unknown cosmic energy forces that can suddenly and without warning do the same thing in the blink of an eye?

How well could our technological cultures survive an EMP without our stored data? If society regressed to a more primitive time, what record would we leave behind to explain who we were? Many of our artifacts might well endure for a few thousand years; but would their intended use be obvious? Without the evidence of 'controllers' of machine technology would future analysts decide there must have been extra-terrestrial intervention?

Will we persist in crediting amazing visitations from distant stars, even distant galaxies, for all the things that we cannot explain easily in our modern arrogant frame of reference? Are `UFO's´ vehicles from distant unknown planets, or are they simply unexplained natural phenomena that we have yet to account for in our insular technological thinking?21| If we are being visited by space beings in abundance all over the world why don't they make cultural contact like they did in the past? If they have made contact, why must it be kept such a dark secret? If they built Puma Punku, Stonehenge, Carnak, Mesoamerican pyramids - on and on - why did they leave? Why don't they help us today?

Are we less in need of superior guidance than the natives of the pre-Colombian Western Hemsphere? Have we evolved beyond their foibles? After the Mesoamerican and South American cultures were visited by 'gods' they carried out the practice of human sacrifice. Does that prove that they were visited by superior beings? Are we expected to believe that 'ancient astronauts' taught savages to sacrifice their neighbors and children while constructing beautiful cities?

Certainly we have not evolved in regards to human nature. If anything, murder is more common than ever; thievery still pervades society; lust has not decreased over the centuries; greed for wealth and power is still prominently present; war is part of every human lifetime. By the time that an infant approaches the toddler stage it has learned to lie, to grab things not belonging to it, to show a rebellious nature towards discipline. Any parent has recognized this behavior as 'natural'.

Should we not hope for a visitation of superior beings to 'show us the way' to overcome these human weaknesses? The Star Trek series posited the idea that a horrible war pushed the human race to change. More horrible than World War I? . . .than WW II? If Sodom and Mohenjo Daro were vaporized by an atomic war, couldn't that have been horrible enough to raise our consciousness to forego wars completely?

So many 'experts' believe that religion is a waste of time. Has science changed human nature? Has technology changed human nature? Has long recorded history changed human nature? Religion has an excellent record of changing human nature, individual by individual, especially the forgiving Grace of God through Jesus Christ. Yet the intellectuals condemn Christianity and make hollow promises for the future that they promise.

        [All web links acquired in Summer of 2014]
1| Dr. Robert M. Schoch, The Great Sphinx;
2| Ibid.
3| John Schriber (Executive Producer), The Mystery of the Crystal Skulls (television program); New
     York: Peacock Productions (NBC), in association with the Sci Fi Channel.
4| The High Frequency Active Auroral Research Program; general information is available at
5| The term 'auroral electrojet' is the name given to the large horizontal currents that flow in the D and
     E regions of the auroral ionosphere;
6| A Multi-Transducer Near Field Acoustic Levitation System for Noncontact Transportation of Large-
     Sized Planar Objects; Japanese Journal of Applied Physics;
7| Museums include: the British Museum, London; Archaeological Museum, Herakleion (23 lenses
     on display and more in storage); National Museum, Naples; Candia Museum, Crete; Lavigerie
     Museum, Carthage; Archaeological Museum, Istanbul.
     Bart Lewis, 'Did ancient celators use magnifying lenses?' The Celator [ancient numismatics
     magazine], Nov., 1997 Vol 11, No. 11, page 40. [ ]
8| Yannis A. Sakellarakis, and George Sines "Lenses in Antiquity." American Journal of Archaeology
     91.2: 191-196; 1987.
9| Dimitris Plantzos, 'Crystals and Lenses in the Graeco-Roman World'; American Journal of
     Archaeology, Vol. 101, No. 3, pp. 451-464; Jul., 1997.
10| Alice Stevenson, 'The Pitt Rivers Egyptian flint knife'; Pitt Rivers Museum
     Francesco Raffaele, 'Early Dynastic Egypt Site: Some Images' [c. 3450-2940 BCE]
11| Dr David Whitehouse, 'World's oldest telescope?'; BBC NEWS [Sci/Tech]; July 1, 1999.
12| Ibid.
13| George Rawlinson, 'The Seven Great Monarchies Of The Ancient Eastern World', Vol 4; ch. 5, 'Arts
     and Sciences'; Gutenberg E-book;
14| Timothy C. Kriss, Vesna Martich Kriss, 'History of the Operating Microscope: From Magnifying
     Glass to Microneurosurgery'; Neurosurgery 42 (4): pp. 899–907; April 1998.
15| Daniel C. Stevenson [The Internet Classics Archive, MIT], The Clouds by Aristophanes; see at: (C) 1994-2000, Daniel C. Stevenson, Web Atomics
16| Pliny the Elder, 'Natural History', Book XXXVII, Chapter xvi, paragraph 64: Nero princeps
     gladiatorum pugnas spectabat in smaragdo.
17| Dr David Whitehouse [#11 above]. also see:
18| Robert Temple, 'The Crystal Sun', Arrow Books, Ltd. [Century], London; 2001.
19| For an excellent review of Dr. Price's estimation of the Antikythera 'analogue computer' see:
     Brian Haughton, 'Hidden History: Lost Civilizations, Secret Knowledge, and Ancient Mysteries';
     The Career Press Inc., Franklin Lakes, N. J.; p. 158; 2007.
20| This particular rendering of the gear positions is released into the public domain by Mark Roebuck,
     Feb., 2009.
21| Take a cursive look at the once mysterious weather phenomena of 'sprites', 'jets', 'elves' and 'trolls':

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