SCISSION IV - HISTORY: FROM
'NOWHERE' TO UTOPIA
Darwinian historians tell us that man spent untold millions of years
climbing out of pond scum, growing a prehensile tail so that he could
climb trees, learned to 'walk' upright and finally to build hospitals.
The evidence for all this is a bit sketchy.
Hunter-gatherers - a 19th
century engraving of
Australian aborigines living
the hunter-gatherer lifestyle.
Note the temporary
structural nature of the
living habitat; taken from
For many ages human-kind survived by. . . well, they just survived. At
some point they learned how to become hunter-gatherers, foraging each
day for enough food to support the family unit, or perhaps later a
tribal unit, and as they moved around foraging they needed to find
shelter for the night. The survival line was thin at best. This lasted
until about 8,000 BCE when agriculture began to take the survival
stage, as stated previously.
Then we come to some 'early human' remains discovered between 1991 and
2005 in Dmanisi, Georgia1|.
Called 'Homo (erectus) georgicus'
there is some heated discussion just where to place these remains on
the scale of human development. It is claimed that the fossils date to
about 1.8 million years ago and may predate Homo erectus; they are
considered to represent the earliest 'human presence' in the Caucasus
The controversy as to where to place them in human history stems from a
rather small cranial skull [brain] size but well developed spine and
lower limbs - presumably for walking upright. At present they are
considered by some as a possible 'link' between the African
Homo erectus - perhaps a 'separate species'2|.
In 2005 one researcher, David Lordkipanidze, found a skull that further
confuses the evolutionary history of humans. The skull was obviously
that of an older 'human'; it had only one tooth and had apparently
suffered from poor health for some time prior to its demise.
Lordkipanidze says, 'It is clear that this was a sick individual… We
think this is a good argument that this
individual had support from other members of the group.'3|
Odd: half-ape, half-humans clinging to a subsistence survival yet
taking care of their sick and elderly for years as they moved from
place to place.
The discovery of 'Rhodesian Man'
in 1921 further clouded the finite
steps on the way from ape to human. A cranium was found in a lead and
zinc mine in Broken Hill, Northern Rhodesia; it was labeled the Kabwe
skull or Kabwe cranium, or Broken Hill 1. The skull is dated to be
between 125,000 and 300,000 years old; earlier dating placed it at 1.75
to 2.5 million years old, but since the skull appeared 'more developed'
than Homo erectus, it was immediately down-dated.
The Rhodesian Man skull shares some characteristics with Neanderthal
man and some with modern Homo sapiens. Apparently the difficulty in
placing the skull in the proper scale of human development motivated
scientists at the British Museum of Natural History to turn over its
hypothetical skeletal reconstruction to an ornithologist - a scientist
who studies birds. Reportedly the result was, at best, laughable4|.
There is some controversy as to whether this individual was involved in
pre-historic mining. One report even claims a bullet hole in the
Evolutionists have placed Rhodesia Man all over the charts; as a
sample, it fails to provide any clue to human evolvement. Wikipedia
states: The destruction of the
paleoanthropological site has made layered dating impossible.
In 1958 a jawbone was unearthed in Tuscany,
Italy, at 600 foot depth in
coal stratum dated to the Miocene period [5 - 23 million years ago.]
Supposedly experts claimed the jaw to be 'modern-looking [human]',
although it had been distorted by geological processes. Dr. Johannes
Huerzeler, of the Museum of Natural History in Basel, Switzerland,
declared it the jawbone of a human child, the world's 'oldest man'6|.
This would place modern humanoids in an earlier period than
The web site Bad Archaeology states otherwise: it belongs to a fossil primate, Oreopithecus
bamboli, which flourished during the Miocene period, around twenty
million years ago7|.
In 1937 cave paintings were discovered by Léon Péricard and Stephane
Lwoff in the Lussac-les-Châteaux area of France. The web site Out-Of-Place-Artifacts
shows these drawings displaying well-dressed men and women, wearing
hats and boots, belts with clasps and coats and gloves8|.
by the OOParts website of
some of the line drawings
found in the La Marche cave.
Of this enhanced drawing OOParts says: One engraving is a profile of a
young lady who appears to be sitting and watching something. She is
dressed in a pant suit with a short-sleeved jacket, a pair of small
boots, and a decorated hat that flops down over her right ear and
touches her shoulder. Resting on her lap is a square, flat object that
folds down the front, very much like a modern purse.
This artwork from the La Marche cave was dated to the middle
Magdalenian period, around 14,000 or 15,000 BCE9|. The
drawings were etched on about 1,500 stone slabs. The two researchers
published their findings in 193810|.
Immediately experts criticized the dating claiming that the art was
More recently, in 2002, re-examination of the site has tended to
confirm the earlier Magdalenian dating11|.
The Biblical city of Jericho
has yielded evidence of settlement as early as 9,000 BCE12|,
almost to the very beginning of the Holocene epoch of the Earth's
history. The world was warming from the ending of the last ice age and
a new culture based on agriculture and communal living emerged at
Jericho; archaeologists have termed this period 'Pre-Pottery Neolithic
A' or PPNA.
Neolithic tower found
in deep excavations
at Jericho represents
develpment of social
structure, along with
the construction of
structures in the
Jordan River region.
By 9,400 BCE the site had developed into a fortified 'city' of around
1,000 to 3,000 people, with a massive stone wall about 12 feet high and
5 feet wide at the base. Inside the enclosure was a stone tower with an
internal spiral staircase13|.
Such structure is, so far, unprecedented at such an early date. It is
reported that there is no evidence of streets in this earliest
settlement. Oddly, some experts credit the tower and thick outer wall
as defense against flood waters.
The Ukraine claims the
earliest known map, engraved on a mammoth tusk;
discovered in 1966, it is dated 10,000 to 12,000 BCE and was found at
Mezhirich. It is pictographic
appears to show a group of dwellings
along a river14|; see
Accepted archaeology posits that humans crossed the Bering Straits on
foot at about the time of the end of the last ice age - between 16,500
- 13,000 years ago15|. Those humans are termed
although this author knows of no explanation how Asians became western
'Indians'. It is posited that those migrants had to have walked across
the intervening ocean waters on ice since they had no boats larger than
In the early 1960's archaeological excavation began on a site at
Hueyatlaco in Valsequillo,
Mexico. The site yielded some startling data
about the time of the arrival of humans in the 'New World'. Early
dating was reported as ambiguous, even contradictory. In 1969 articles
were published stating radiocarbon dating placed artifacts at about
35,000 years ago; however, nuclear [uranium] dating placed it at
260,000 years old, give or take 60,000 years.
Some time before this dating was made public, reportedly an head of the
Archaeological Department of the Mexican Government seized all the
artifacts and closed work on the site. Ever since that time the site
has been the course of heated controversy. In 1996 the NBC television
network aired a special, 'The Mysterious Origins of Man,' narrated by
Charlton Heston. One of the early archaeologist on the Hueyatlaco site
presented the controversial early dates for transmigration. The program
documented multiple peer-reviewed papers that appear to support the
anomalously older age16|.
Even two of the original team of archaeologists, Cynthia Irwin-Williams
and Virginia Steen-McIntyre, seem to have fallen out over the
controversy. Members of the scientific community attacked NBC and
petitioned the government to limit their freedom of speech in order to
prohibit any re-broadcast of the program. Some of the original team
reportedly had their careers damaged and their ability to publish
Further independent testing, uranium-thorium dating, fission track
dating, tephra hydration dating and the studying of mineral weathering,
seemed to confirm a date substantially older than the official date of
subsequent to 30,000 years ago17|. In
2004 Sam VanLandingham, a
biostratigraphic researcher, published two peer-reviewed analyses that
confirm the earlier findings of approximately 250,000 years ago18|; he
stated that artifacts could be dated to the Sangamonian Interglacial
period (ca. 80,000 to 220,000 years ago) by the presence of multiple
diatom species, one of which first appeared during that era and others
that went extinct by the era's end. In 2006 he further refined and
confirmed his 2004 findings19|.
Other researchers that have tried to challenge the Clovis and Folsom
barrier [nothing human in the New World before 13,500 years ago]
have been similarly
challenged. Professor of Anthropology E. James Dixon suggested in 1993
that perhaps human migration to the Americas was via crossing the
Pacific by boat20|; he
had done hemoglobin analysis from spear points and found
dates that pre-dated the perilous 13,000 year academic knife blade. He
challenged to drop the issue21|.
Along the Savannah River in Allendale County, South Carolina, is an
archaeological site called Topper.
The site came to public view in 1998
when they claimed that evidence pointed to the fact that ancient humans
were present 16,000 or more years ago, some two to three thousand years
earlier than previously allowed by textbooks [the Clovis barrier].
Reportedly the primary excavation has gone down to the 50,000 BCE
level22|. Albert Goodyear of the
University of South Carolina in 2004
claimed to have carbonized plant material [essentially charcoal]
radiocarbon dated to around 50,000 years ago, or approximately 37,000
years before the Clovis people barrier. Goodyear had dug 4 meters
deeper than the Clovis artifacts also found at the site. Critics say
the charcoal is due to natural burning long before human habitation.
An anthropomorphically-shaped scraper-pick
has an 'eye' engraved into
the surface, reportedly found in the 50,000 year old strata.
One might ask, 'Will we ever know the facts about human transmigration
to the New World and how it came about?'
Fossil evidence tells us that dinosaurs
became extinct 65 million years
ago; so the experts tell us23|. In
2005 Mary Higby Schweitzer and a
team of paleontologists published their finding of soft tissue from the
femur bone of a T. rex
Obviously soft tissue would be
unlikely to survive fossilization over 65 million years. The peer group
attacks on this claim are well documented25|.
In 2008 creationist Carl Baugh announced that he was in the possession
of a "pristine" human footprint overlapped by a theropod dinosaur track
in Cretaceous rock. The site is located at [or near] the Dinosaur
Valley State Park, Glen Rose, Texas. The claim has fallen into severe
In 1966 an Ica, Peru
physician, Javier Cabrera, was given a stone with
the image engraved of what he took to be an extinct fish. Cabrera
further acquired a number of similar stones from two brothers who also
collected pre-Inca artifacts. Later he claims a farmer named Basilio
Uschuya sold him thousands more engraved stones27|.
His collection rose
to about 11,000 stones by the mid-1970's. The stones are andesite and
are sized from pebbles to boulders. They are shallowly engraved with a
variety of images, including men fighting dinosaurs, long extinct
animals, astronomers and surgeons with complex instruments, and maps of
stars and land masses.
An Ica Stone image showing a
dinosaur handling a human
The farmer, Uschuya, later claimed that he had forged the stones. Even
later still he claimed he had said that he forged the stones because he
feared arrest for dealing in archaeological artifacts. Local artisans
have duplicated the genre to sell to tourists28|.
Obviously there is credible evidence of early human occupation in the
New World, and just as obviously there is enough controversy to
encourage tricksters and con-men - on both sides.
If dinosaurs did indeed survive into the Neolithic, it may be
impossible to prove it conclusively. In the first scission we examined
the idea that scientific instrumentation could have built in biases.
Carbon-14 dating presents a
good example at this point. The process
presents a radiometric dating method that uses the amount of the
naturally occurring radioisotope carbon-14 to estimate the age of
carbon-bearing [essentially organic] materials up to about 58,000 to
In the process of photosynthesis plants incorporate some carbon-14
isotopes at current environmental levels. Over time a fraction of this
organic material declines at a fixed
exponential rate due to the
English scientist Christopher Busby30| has
pointed out that carbon-14
is formed through organic interaction with cosmic rays, which is in
turn affected by variations in the Earth's magnetosphere. To propose a
'fixed exponential rate' one must presume that cosmic radiation is
virtually unchanging. He points out that even Willard Libby, credited
with the discovery of carbon-14 dating [although Libby further credits
a suggestion by Enrico Fermi], never claimed that carbon-14 constituted
The upper range of radiocarbon-14 dating is about 62,000 years31|.
Certain adjustments within that range must be made by known cosmic
events such as climate change. Calibration
adjustments for such
phenomena are offered in the literature. There are other methods of
radiometric dating, each with its caveats and limitations. The
preferred approach is to use two or more methods for each instance32|.
The 2003 historical drama film Master
and Commander: The Far Side of
the World has a scene where the ship's doctor performs a trephination
on one of the elderly crew members. In the scene he uses a fixed-size
bore-drill to open a hole in the patient's skull to clean out bone
fragments and relieve cranial pressure from a wound. The doctor then
takes a coin the same size as the bore and sets it in the hole for the
bone to close over it.
The skull of a Neolithic girl
trephination - about 3500 BCE; Natural
History Museum, Lausanne, France.
Photographed by Rama
Trepanning, or trephination [craniotomy], appears to be the oldest
human surgical procedure for which we have archaeological evidence. In
France 40 pre-historic skulls were found with trephination holes; they
dated to about 6,500 BCE33|.
Many of these types of surgeries show
evidence of the bone closing over the hole indicating that the patients
were healing over time.
The Peruvian Andean Paracas culture lived from about 800 BCE to 100
BCE. They are noted for the huge geoglyph known as 'the Candelabra',
nearly 600 feet tall, on the north face of the ridge of the peninsula.
Skulls with trephination have been found there34|. Of
about 10,000 well
preserved bodies, about 6% had undergone trepanning; some contained
multiple holes. Survival rate was estimated at about 60%.
Doctor John Mangiadi35|
claims that South American pre-Inca
civilizations performed trephinations as far back as 2,000 BCE; in
France 5,100 BCE; the Egyptians as far back as 8,000 BCE.
A Dutch Professor and anatomist, C. W. Ariens Kappers, claims to have
seen trephine holes found in prehistoric skulls 50,000 years old; no
details are offered36|.
The Bible mentions giants in
various places, not the least in
There is a rather heated argument going on whether there
were ever giants or not. Whenever the skeletal remains of a giant are
there are immediate cries of 'fraud'38|.
There is photographic evidence
of giant moderns - just do an internet search 'giant human remains' -
but most skeletal artifacts remain controversial.
Thus we find that the history of humankind is not really neatly
categorized indicating a smooth process of evolutionary progress. In
his book 'Archaeology: A Very Short Introduction' author Paul Bahn
displays a cartoon on page 73 showing a dedicated archaeologist deep in
the left side of the panel and a Joe Public family on the right side;
in between is a dusty fray of archaeologists and anthropologists, etc.,
in a wild melee over who is right about what.
Not only has humankind not evolved smoothly from ape to 'man' - as
evidence the case of Homo georgicus for example - but human use of
advanced technologies is not a clear progression - as evidence the
grooved / drilled megalithic stones of Puma Punku.
We look at our automobiles, our airplanes and space craft, our
computers and our microwaves and we feel comfortable with the concept
of having evolved from cave men to what we are today. Yet when we look
at the twentieth century we find wars that killed millions of people;
we find political movements that killed millions of people - and
justified it. We find humankind still involved in theft, deceit, greed,
violence and murder.
Enter Star Trek and Star Trek: The Next Generation,
etc., which present
a society free of crime, violence, greed, ambition and even cash. Read
the web blogs and one will encounter such questions as whether the
'cash-less society' it proscribes is communism, socialism or utopia39|.
Given the millions of deaths that communism has caused we can likely
rule that one out. Still, how were these super-moderns able to put
money and ambition behind them? The series writers mention a terrible
war in the twenty-first century, but do not explain how it managed
change where the horrific twentieth century wars only led to more of
the historical same.
Conceptual creator Gene Roddenberry stated: '[By creating] a new world
with new rules, I could make statements about sex, religion, Vietnam,
politics, and intercontinental missiles. Indeed, we did make them on
Star Trek: we were sending
messages and fortunately they all got by the
Will humankind, then, evolve beyond these long-held primitive foibles?
Roddenberry was hopefully wishing it so. He thought his progressive
ideas of human development might come to pass if humanity could learn
from the lessons of the past. So far that hope seems vain. It would
appear that human nature is, simply, human nature.
The Star Trek series of films
also highlighted an evolution
technology, starting with a naval sailing vessel named Enterprise,
progressing to the space shuttle Enterprise and finally to the evolving
models of the 'Starship Enterprise'. The series played with many
advanced technological ideas, such as 'warp' speed, hand-held
communications and matter-to-energy / energy-to-matter 'transporter'
The idea of science fiction, popularized in the nineteenth century and
onwards, has captured the public mind, but often has veered into
wishful thinking about not only technology but human evolution.
The first suggestion for a 'Utopia' [Greek: 'no place' or 'good place',
depending on your reading] was by Plato in his social manifesto 'The
Republic'. Written around 380 BCE it advocates a benign ruling class
and further class structures; it also suggests eliminating poverty and
deprivation . . . no laws, no military and no lawyers. A bit short on
specifics, it has made its greatest impact upon the historical mind,
but almost no impact on social behavior.
Thomas More wrote a book named 'Utopia' in the sixteenth century.
Idealistic, many took it as parody on the cumbersome English governing
system of his time.
Economic utopian models have tended to be socialistic with 'equal'
distribution of wealth. This ideal would free citizens to pursue the
arts and and science. William Morris wrote 'News from Nowhere' [1890
(see meaning of utopia
above)] in which he complained about the
over-bearing bureaucracies needed to implement utopian distribution of
resources. Of course Karl Marx is considered as utopian. If so,
evidence of the consequences [genocide] is not very encouraging.
The United Nations started as a sort of utopian venture, but shows
evidence of heavy bureaucracy, corruption and waste. Some early
colonial American settlements, such as the Plymouth Colony, could be
considered utopian in their conception; the Plymouth Colony had to
quickly and drastically change its motives in order to survive under
In 1923 science fiction author H.G. Wells wrote his utopian ideas in
'Men Like Gods'; education obviated the need for government; religion
and politics were out of vogue: advanced scientific thinking led to the
Perhaps the best known Utopia is the Garden of Eden. A look at the
calendar in Scission I shows that this utopian ideal lasted twenty-four
years, by this author's reckoning. The cause for its undoing is the
cause for the failure of all utopias: human nature.
Human nature: with all its foibles it may not survive Utopia, but
perhaps away back in the time of Homo georgicus it contributed to
familial care for the sick and elderly.
[All web links acquired in Spring
1| Leo K. Gabunia, Abesalom Vekua, Carl C. Swisher, III, Reid Ferring,
Antje Justus, Medea Nioradze,
et al.: Earliest Pleistocene hominid cranial
remains from Dmanisi, Republic of Georgia: taxonomy,
geological setting, and age; Science, 288:1019-25; (May, 2000).
2| A. Vekua, D. Lordkipanidze, G. Philip Rightmire, Jordi Agusti, R.
Ferring, Givi Maisuradze et al.: A
new skull of early Homo from Dmanisi, Georgia.
Science, 297:85-9; (2002).
3| Zach Zorich, "Did Homo erectus Coddle His Grandparents?," Discover, Vol. 27, No. 01, p. 67;
2006). Also see: D. Lordkipanidze, A. Vekua,
R. Ferring, G.P. Rightmire, J. Agusti, G. Kiladze et al:
The earliest toothless hominid skull; Nature, 434:717-8; (2005). April,
2005 National Geographic.
4| For a complete framing of this somewhat silly staged play see Creation Worldview Ministries: The
Rhodesian Man: http://www.creationworldview.org/articles_view.asp?id=46
Arthur Smith Woodward, "A New Cave Man from
Rhodesia, South Africa," Nature
(17 Nov. 1921) - http://www.amendez.com/Early Man Seminar Poster/EMSP
6| L. Rook, et al., The taxonomic status and biochronological
implications of new finds of Oreopithecus
from Baccinello (Tuscany, Italy); Journal of Human Evolution, 30:
3-27; (1996). See at:
Rook et al.pdf
[registration may be required]
8| Those Sophisticated Cave Men,
Page 2: The Lussac Stone Age Portraits; http://s8int.com/sophis2.html
9| Clottes, Jean, Paleolithic Art in France; Bradshaw Foundation, Adorant magazine (2002). Also see:
10| Léon Péricard, Stéphane Lwoff, 'La Marche, commune de
Lussac-les-Châteaux (Vienne): Premier
atelier de Magdalénien III à dalles gravées
mobiles (campagnes de fouilles 1937-1938)', Bulletin de
préhistorique française 37.7-9 (1940:149-54); 154 Stéphane
Lwoff, 'Fouilles Péricard et
Lwoff à La Marche (Vienne) - Industrie de
l'Os', Bulletin de la Société
préhistorique française 39.1/2
11| Op cit.
12| Steven Mithen, After the ice: a
global human history, 20,000-5000 BC; Harvard University Press.,
Cambridge, Mass.; (2006).
14| Peter James, Nick Thorpe, Ancient
Inventions, Ballantine Books, p. 57; (1994). Also see:
15| Sandro L. Bonatto, Francisco M. Salzano, "A single and early
migration for the peopling of the
Americas supported by mitochondrial DNA
sequence data"; Proceedings of the
94: 1866–1871; (1997).
16| Mark Owen Webb, Suzanne Clark, Anatomy
of an Anomaly, Disputatio 6 (May, 1999); see
18| S.L. VanLandingham, Corroboration of Sangamonian Age of Artifacts
From the Valsequillo Region
Puebla Mexico By Means of Diatom
Volume 50, Number 4,
pp 313-342; (2004).
19| S.L. VanLandingham, Diatom Evidence For Autocthonous Artifact
Deposition In the Valsequillo
Region Puebla Mexico During Sangamonian (sensu lato = 80,0000 to ca. 220,000
yr BP [before
present] and Illinoian (220,000 to 430,000 yr
BP)), Journal of Paleolimnology,
Number 1, pp 101-116, (Jul 2006).
20| E. James Dixon, Quest for the
Origins of the First Americans; Albuquerque: University of New
Mexico Press, p. 128; (1993).
21| Ibid, pp. 111-112.
22| Albert C. Goodyear, et al., The Topper Site: Beyond Clovis at
Allendale, Mammoth Trumpet,
volume 16, no. 4, (Sept, 2001). See: http://www.allendale-expedition.net/publications/MT
For excellent pictures also see http://www.daysknob.com/Topper_A.htm
23| N. MacLeod, et al., The Cretaceous–Tertiary biotic transition, Journal of the Geological Society
154 (2): 265–292; (1997).
24| Mary H. Schweitzer, JL Wittmeyer, Jack R. Horner ["Dinosaur Jack"],
JK Toporski, Soft-Tissue
Vessels and Cellular Preservation in
Tyrannosaurus rex; Science
25| For a thorough discussion with links see: http://www.talkorigins.org/faqs/dinosaur/blood.html
26| Glen J. Kuban, Dinosaur Valley State Park (1992); see: http://paleo.cc/paluxy/dvsp.htm
for a number of links to critical analysis of similar claims.
27| Javier Cabrera, The Message of
the Engraved Stones of Ica [excerpted], see
28| Robert T. Carroll, The Skeptic's
Dictionary: a collection of strange beliefs, amusing deceptions,
dangerous delusions, New York: Wiley, pp. 169–71; (2003).
29| J. R. Arnold, W. F. Libby, Age Determinations by Radiocarbon
Content: Checks with Samples of
Known Age; Science
110 (2869): 678–680; (1949).
31| W. Plastino, L. Kaihola, P. Bartolomei, F. Bella, Cosmic
Background Reduction In The Radiocarbon
Measurement By Scintillation Spectrometry At
The Underground Laboratory Of Gran Sasso,
43 (2A): 157–161; (2001).
32| G.B. Dalrymple, et al., Age and thermal history of the Geysers
plutonic complex (felsite unit),
Geysers geothermal field, California: a 40Ar/39Ar
and U–Pb study; Earth and Planetary
173, 285–298; (1999).
33| Richard Restak, "Fixing the Brain". Mysteries of the Mind; Washington,
D.C.: National Geographic
34| Valerie A. Andrushko and John W. Verano, Prehistoric Trepanation in
the Cuzco Region of Peru: A
View Into an Ancient Andean Practice; American Journal of Physical Anthropology,
35| John R. Mangiadi, MD FACS, History
of the Operating Room, Optimus Services LLC; see
Also see (on line): Stone Age Surgery,
Magazine, September, 1997: http://discovermagazine.com/1997/sep/stoneagesurgery1229
36| C. W. Ariens Kappers, Medicine: Kappers Cures; Time Magazine, Monday, July 02,
37| The translation of 'giants' in Genesis chapter 6 has been disputed;
the Septuagint translates the term
as 'giants', and that may be where the modern
translation derives; the root word in Hebrew just means
'to fall' and nephilim could be translated 'the
38| James Owen, "Skeleton of Giant" Is Internet Photo Hoax, National Geographic News, December
2007; also see: http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2007/12/071214-giant-skeleton.html
39| For example, the 'physics forum': http://www.physicsforums.com/showthread.php?t=3421
40| Johnson-Smith, American Science
Fiction TV: Star Trek, Stargate and Beyond; I B Tauris & Co
Ltd.; (Jan. 2005).