Darwinian historians tell us that man spent untold millions of years climbing out of pond scum, growing a prehensile tail so that he could climb trees, learned to 'walk' upright and finally to build hospitals. The evidence for all this is a bit sketchy.
Australian aborigine hunter-gatherers
Hunter-gatherers - a 19th
century engraving of
Australian aborigines living
the hunter-gatherer lifestyle.
Note the temporary
structural nature of the
living habitat; taken from

For many ages human-kind survived by. . . well, they just survived. At some point they learned how to become hunter-gatherers, foraging each day for enough food to support the family unit, or perhaps later a tribal unit, and as they moved around foraging they needed to find shelter for the night. The survival line was thin at best. This lasted until about 8,000 BCE when agriculture began to take the survival stage, as stated previously.

Then we come to some 'early human' remains discovered between 1991 and 2005 in Dmanisi, Georgia1|. Called 'Homo (erectus) georgicus' there is some heated discussion just where to place these remains on the scale of human development. It is claimed that the fossils date to about 1.8 million years ago and may predate Homo erectus; they are considered to represent the earliest 'human presence' in the Caucasus Mountain region.

The controversy as to where to place them in human history stems from a rather small cranial skull [brain] size but well developed spine and lower limbs - presumably for walking upright. At present they are considered by some as a possible 'link' between the African Australopithecus and Homo erectus - perhaps a 'separate species'2|.

In 2005 one researcher, David Lordkipanidze, found a skull that further confuses the evolutionary history of humans. The skull was obviously that of an older 'human'; it had only one tooth and had apparently suffered from poor health for some time prior to its demise. Lordkipanidze says, 'It is clear that this was a sick individual… We think this is a good argument that this individual had support from other members of the group.'
3| [emphasis added]

Odd: half-ape, half-humans clinging to a subsistence survival yet taking care of their sick and elderly for years as they moved from place to place.

The discovery of 'Rhodesian Man' in 1921 further clouded the finite steps on the way from ape to human. A cranium was found in a lead and zinc mine in Broken Hill, Northern Rhodesia; it was labeled the Kabwe skull or Kabwe cranium, or Broken Hill 1. The skull is dated to be between 125,000 and 300,000 years old; earlier dating placed it at 1.75 to 2.5 million years old, but since the skull appeared 'more developed' than Homo erectus, it was immediately down-dated.

The Rhodesian Man skull shares some characteristics with Neanderthal man and some with modern Homo sapiens. Apparently the difficulty in placing the skull in the proper scale of human development motivated scientists at the British Museum of Natural History to turn over its hypothetical skeletal reconstruction to an ornithologist - a scientist who studies birds. Reportedly the result was, at best, laughable4|.

There is some controversy as to whether this individual was involved in pre-historic mining. One report even claims a bullet hole in the non-fossilized skull5|. Evolutionists have placed Rhodesia Man all over the charts; as a sample, it fails to provide any clue to human evolvement. Wikipedia states: The destruction of the paleoanthropological site has made layered dating impossible.

In 1958 a jawbone was unearthed in Tuscany, Italy, at 600 foot depth in coal stratum dated to the Miocene period [5 - 23 million years ago.] Supposedly experts claimed the jaw to be 'modern-looking [human]', although it had been distorted by geological processes. Dr. Johannes Huerzeler, of the Museum of Natural History in Basel, Switzerland, declared it the jawbone of a human child, the world's 'oldest man'6|. This would place modern humanoids in an earlier period than pre-historic 'ape-men'.

The web site Bad Archaeology states otherwise: it belongs to a fossil primate, Oreopithecus bamboli, which flourished during the Miocene period, around twenty million years ago7|.

In 1937 cave paintings were discovered by Léon Péricard and Stephane Lwoff in the Lussac-les-Châteaux area of France. The web site Out-Of-Place-Artifacts shows these drawings displaying well-dressed men and women, wearing hats and boots, belts with clasps and coats and gloves8|.
La Marche interpretationAn interpretive enhancement
by the OOParts website of
some of the line drawings
found in the
La Marche cave.

La Marche interpretation

Of this enhanced drawing OOParts says: One engraving is a profile of a young lady who appears to be sitting and watching something. She is dressed in a pant suit with a short-sleeved jacket, a pair of small boots, and a decorated hat that flops down over her right ear and touches her shoulder. Resting on her lap is a square, flat object that folds down the front, very much like a modern purse.

This artwork from the La Marche cave was dated to the middle Magdalenian period, around 14,000 or 15,000 BCE9|. The drawings were etched on about 1,500 stone slabs. The two researchers published their findings in 193810|. Immediately experts criticized the dating claiming that the art was 'too modern'11|.

More recently, in 2002, re-examination of the site has tended to confirm the earlier Magdalenian dating11|.

The Biblical city of Jericho has yielded evidence of settlement as early as 9,000 BCE12|, almost to the very beginning of the Holocene epoch of the Earth's history. The world was warming from the ending of the last ice age and a new culture based on agriculture and communal living emerged at Jericho; archaeologists have termed this period 'Pre-Pottery Neolithic A' or PPNA.
Neolithic tower - Jericho

Neolithic tower found
in deep excavations
at Jericho represents
develpment of social
and communal
structure, along with
the construction of
Natufian culture
structures in the
Jordan River region.

By 9,400 BCE the site had developed into a fortified 'city' of around 1,000 to 3,000 people, with a massive stone wall about 12 feet high and 5 feet wide at the base. Inside the enclosure was a stone tower with an internal spiral staircase13|. Such structure is, so far, unprecedented at such an early date. It is reported that there is no evidence of streets in this earliest settlement. Oddly, some experts credit the tower and thick outer wall as defense against flood waters.
Mezhirich Map on ivory

The Ukraine claims the earliest known map, engraved on a mammoth tusk; discovered in 1966, it is dated 10,000 to 12,000 BCE and was found at Mezhirich. It is pictographic and
appears to show a group of dwellings along a river14|; see

Accepted archaeology posits that humans crossed the Bering Straits on foot at about the time of the end of the last ice age - between 16,500 - 13,000 years ago15|. Those humans are termed 'Paleo-Indians', although this author knows of no explanation how Asians became western 'Indians'. It is posited that those migrants had to have walked across the intervening ocean waters on ice since they had no boats larger than modern canoes.

In the early 1960's archaeological excavation began on a site at Hueyatlaco in Valsequillo, Mexico. The site yielded some startling data about the time of the arrival of humans in the 'New World'. Early dating was reported as ambiguous, even contradictory. In 1969 articles were published stating radiocarbon dating placed artifacts at about 35,000 years ago; however, nuclear [uranium] dating placed it at 260,000 years old, give or take 60,000 years.

Some time before this dating was made public, reportedly an head of the Archaeological Department of the Mexican Government seized all the artifacts and closed work on the site. Ever since that time the site has been the course of heated controversy. In 1996 the NBC television network aired a special, 'The Mysterious Origins of Man,' narrated by Charlton Heston. One of the early archaeologist on the Hueyatlaco site presented the controversial early dates for transmigration. The program documented multiple peer-reviewed papers that appear to support the anomalously older age16|.

Even two of the original team of archaeologists, Cynthia Irwin-Williams and Virginia Steen-McIntyre, seem to have fallen out over the controversy. Members of the scientific community attacked NBC and petitioned the government to limit their freedom of speech in order to prohibit any re-broadcast of the program. Some of the original team reportedly had their careers damaged and their ability to publish hindered.

Further independent testing, uranium-thorium dating, fission track dating, tephra hydration dating and the studying of mineral weathering, seemed to confirm a date substantially older than the official date of subsequent to 30,000 years ago17|. In 2004 Sam VanLandingham, a biostratigraphic researcher, published two peer-reviewed analyses that confirm the earlier findings of approximately 250,000 years ago18|; he stated that artifacts could be dated to the Sangamonian Interglacial period (ca. 80,000 to 220,000 years ago) by the presence of multiple diatom species, one of which first appeared during that era and others that went extinct by the era's end. In 2006 he further refined and confirmed his 2004 findings19|.

Other researchers that have tried to challenge the Clovis and Folsom barrier [nothing human in the New World before 13,500 years ago] have been similarly challenged. Professor of Anthropology E. James Dixon suggested in 1993 that perhaps human migration to the Americas was via crossing the Pacific by boat20|; he had done hemoglobin analysis from spear points and found dates that pre-dated the perilous 13,000 year academic knife blade. He was challenged to drop the issue21|.

Along the Savannah River in Allendale County, South Carolina, is an archaeological site called Topper. The site came to public view in 1998 when they claimed that evidence pointed to the fact that ancient humans were present 16,000 or more years ago, some two to three thousand years earlier than previously allowed by textbooks [the Clovis barrier]. Reportedly the primary excavation has gone down to the 50,000 BCE level22|. Albert Goodyear of the University of South Carolina in 2004 claimed to have carbonized plant material [essentially charcoal] radiocarbon dated to around 50,000 years ago, or approximately 37,000 years before the Clovis people barrier. Goodyear had dug 4 meters deeper than the Clovis artifacts also found at the site. Critics say the charcoal is due to natural burning long before human habitation.

An anthropomorphically-shaped scraper-pick has an 'eye' engraved into the surface, reportedly found in the 50,000 year old strata.

One might ask, 'Will we ever know the facts about human transmigration to the New World and how it came about?'

Fossil evidence tells us that dinosaurs became extinct 65 million years ago; so the experts tell us23|. In 2005 Mary Higby Schweitzer and a team of paleontologists published their finding of soft tissue from the femur bone of a T. rex dinosaur24|. Obviously soft tissue would be unlikely to survive fossilization over 65 million years. The peer group attacks on this claim are well documented25|.

In 2008 creationist Carl Baugh announced that he was in the possession of a "pristine" human footprint overlapped by a theropod dinosaur track in Cretaceous rock. The site is located at [or near] the Dinosaur Valley State Park, Glen Rose, Texas. The claim has fallen into severe disrepute26|.

In 1966 an Ica, Peru physician, Javier Cabrera, was given a stone with the image engraved of what he took to be an extinct fish. Cabrera further acquired a number of similar stones from two brothers who also collected pre-Inca artifacts. Later he claims a farmer named Basilio Uschuya sold him thousands more engraved stones27|. His collection rose to about 11,000 stones by the mid-1970's. The stones are andesite and are sized from pebbles to boulders. They are shallowly engraved with a variety of images, including men fighting dinosaurs, long extinct animals, astronomers and surgeons with complex instruments, and maps of stars and land masses.
Dinosaur on an Ica Stone

An Ica Stone image showing a
dinosaur handling a human

The farmer, Uschuya, later claimed that he had forged the stones. Even later still he claimed he had said that he forged the stones because he feared arrest for dealing in archaeological artifacts. Local artisans have duplicated the genre to sell to tourists28|.

Obviously there is credible evidence of early human occupation in the New World, and just as obviously there is enough controversy to encourage tricksters and con-men - on both sides.

If dinosaurs did indeed survive into the Neolithic, it may be impossible to prove it conclusively. In the first scission we examined the idea that scientific instrumentation could have built in biases. Carbon-14 dating presents a good example at this point. The process presents a radiometric dating method that uses the amount of the naturally occurring radioisotope carbon-14 to estimate the age of carbon-bearing [essentially organic] materials up to about 58,000 to 62,000 years.

In the process of photosynthesis plants incorporate some carbon-14 isotopes at current environmental levels. Over time a fraction of this organic material declines at a fixed exponential rate due to the radioactive decay29|.

English scientist Christopher Busby30| has pointed out that carbon-14 is formed through organic interaction with cosmic rays, which is in turn affected by variations in the Earth's magnetosphere. To propose a 'fixed exponential rate' one must presume that cosmic radiation is virtually unchanging. He points out that even Willard Libby, credited with the discovery of carbon-14 dating [although Libby further credits a suggestion by Enrico Fermi], never claimed that carbon-14 constituted a constant.

The upper range of radiocarbon-14 dating is about 62,000 years31|. Certain adjustments within that range must be made by known cosmic events such as climate change. Calibration adjustments for such phenomena are offered in the literature. There are other methods of radiometric dating, each with its caveats and limitations. The preferred approach is to use two or more methods for each instance32|.

The 2003 historical drama film Master and Commander: The Far Side of the World has a scene where the ship's doctor performs a trephination on one of the elderly crew members. In the scene he uses a fixed-size bore-drill to open a hole in the patient's skull to clean out bone fragments and relieve cranial pressure from a wound. The doctor then takes a coin the same size as the bore and sets it in the hole for the bone to close over it.
Neolithic trephination of a girl's skull

The skull of a Neolithic girl that survived
trephination - about 3500 BCE; Natural
History Museum, Lausanne, France.

Photographed by Rama

Trepanning, or trephination [craniotomy], appears to be the oldest human surgical procedure for which we have archaeological evidence. In France 40 pre-historic skulls were found with trephination holes; they dated to about 6,500 BCE33|. Many of these types of surgeries show evidence of the bone closing over the hole indicating that the patients were healing over time.

The Peruvian Andean Paracas culture lived from about 800 BCE to 100 BCE. They are noted for the huge geoglyph known as 'the Candelabra', nearly 600 feet tall, on the north face of the ridge of the peninsula. Skulls with trephination have been found there34|. Of about 10,000 well preserved bodies, about 6% had undergone trepanning; some contained multiple holes. Survival rate was estimated at about 60%.

Doctor John Mangiadi35| claims that South American pre-Inca civilizations performed trephinations as far back as 2,000 BCE; in France 5,100 BCE; the Egyptians as far back as 8,000 BCE.

A Dutch Professor and anatomist, C. W. Ariens Kappers, claims to have seen trephine holes found in prehistoric skulls 50,000 years old; no details are offered36|.

The Bible mentions giants in various places, not the least in Genesis37|. There is a rather heated argument going on whether there were ever giants or not. Whenever the skeletal remains of a giant are publicized there are immediate cries of 'fraud'38|. There is photographic evidence of giant moderns - just do an internet search 'giant human remains' - but most skeletal artifacts remain controversial.

Thus we find that the history of humankind is not really neatly categorized indicating a smooth process of evolutionary progress. In his book 'Archaeology: A Very Short Introduction' author Paul Bahn displays a cartoon on page 73 showing a dedicated archaeologist deep in study on the left side of the panel and a Joe Public family on the right side; in between is a dusty fray of archaeologists and anthropologists, etc., in a wild melee over who is right about what.

Not only has humankind not evolved smoothly from ape to 'man' - as evidence the case of Homo georgicus for example - but human use of advanced technologies is not a clear progression - as evidence the grooved / drilled megalithic stones of Puma Punku.

We look at our automobiles, our airplanes and space craft, our computers and our microwaves and we feel comfortable with the concept of having evolved from cave men to what we are today. Yet when we look at the twentieth century we find wars that killed millions of people; we find political movements that killed millions of people - and justified it. We find humankind still involved in theft, deceit, greed, violence and murder.
Star Trek's Starship Enterprise

Star Trek's first Starship Enterprise -
'at the galactic barrier';

Enter Star Trek and Star Trek: The Next Generation, etc., which present a society free of crime, violence, greed, ambition and even cash. Read the web blogs and one will encounter such questions as whether the 'cash-less society' it proscribes is communism, socialism or utopia39|. Given the millions of deaths that communism has caused we can likely rule that one out. Still, how were these super-moderns able to put money and ambition behind them? The series writers mention a terrible war in the twenty-first century, but do not explain how it managed change where the horrific twentieth century wars only led to more of the historical same.

Conceptual creator Gene Roddenberry stated: '[By creating] a new world with new rules, I could make statements about sex, religion, Vietnam, politics, and intercontinental missiles. Indeed, we did make them on Star Trek: we were sending messages and fortunately they all got by the network40|.'

Will humankind, then, evolve beyond these long-held primitive foibles? Roddenberry was hopefully wishing it so. He thought his progressive ideas of human development might come to pass if humanity could learn from the lessons of the past. So far that hope seems vain. It would appear that human nature is, simply, human nature.

The Star Trek series of films also highlighted an evolution of technology, starting with a naval sailing vessel named Enterprise, progressing to the space shuttle Enterprise and finally to the evolving models of the 'Starship Enterprise'. The series played with many advanced technological ideas, such as 'warp' speed, hand-held communications and matter-to-energy / energy-to-matter 'transporter' technology.

The idea of science fiction, popularized in the nineteenth century and onwards, has captured the public mind, but often has veered into wishful thinking about not only technology but human evolution.

The first suggestion for a 'Utopia' [Greek: 'no place' or 'good place', depending on your reading] was by Plato in his social manifesto 'The Republic'. Written around 380 BCE it advocates a benign ruling class and further class structures; it also suggests eliminating poverty and deprivation . . . no laws, no military and no lawyers. A bit short on specifics, it has made its greatest impact upon the historical mind, but almost no impact on social behavior.

Thomas More wrote a book named 'Utopia' in the sixteenth century. Idealistic, many took it as parody on the cumbersome English governing system of his time.

Economic utopian models have tended to be socialistic with 'equal' distribution of wealth. This ideal would free citizens to pursue the arts and and science. William Morris wrote 'News from Nowhere' [1890 (see meaning of utopia above)] in which he complained about the over-bearing bureaucracies needed to implement utopian distribution of resources. Of course Karl Marx is considered as utopian. If so, the evidence of the consequences [genocide] is not very encouraging.

The United Nations started as a sort of utopian venture, but shows evidence of heavy bureaucracy, corruption and waste. Some early colonial American settlements, such as the Plymouth Colony, could be considered utopian in their conception; the Plymouth Colony had to quickly and drastically change its motives in order to survive under harsh circumstances.

In 1923 science fiction author H.G. Wells wrote his utopian ideas in 'Men Like Gods'; education obviated the need for government; religion and politics were out of vogue: advanced scientific thinking led to the ideal.

Perhaps the best known Utopia is the Garden of Eden. A look at the calendar in Scission I shows that this utopian ideal lasted twenty-four years, by this author's reckoning. The cause for its undoing is the cause for the failure of all utopias: human nature.

Human nature: with all its foibles it may not survive Utopia, but perhaps away back in the time of Homo georgicus it contributed to familial care for the sick and elderly.

        [All web links acquired in Spring of 2014]
1| Leo K. Gabunia, Abesalom Vekua, Carl C. Swisher, III, Reid Ferring, Antje Justus, Medea Nioradze,
     et al.: Earliest Pleistocene hominid cranial remains from Dmanisi, Republic of Georgia: taxonomy,
     geological setting, and age; Science, 288:1019-25; (May, 2000). Also see:
2| A. Vekua, D. Lordkipanidze, G. Philip Rightmire, Jordi Agusti, R. Ferring, Givi Maisuradze et al.: A
     new skull of early Homo from Dmanisi, Georgia. Science, 297:85-9; (2002).
3| Zach Zorich, "Did Homo erectus Coddle His Grandparents?," Discover, Vol. 27, No. 01, p. 67; (January,
     2006). Also see: D. Lordkipanidze, A. Vekua, R. Ferring, G.P. Rightmire, J. Agusti, G. Kiladze et al:
     The earliest toothless hominid skull; Nature, 434:717-8; (2005). April, 2005 National Geographic.
4| For a complete framing of this somewhat silly staged play see Creation Worldview Ministries: The
     fraud of Rhodesian Man Contra see
     Arthur Smith Woodward, "A New Cave Man from Rhodesia, South Africa," Nature 108:371;
     (17 Nov. 1921) - Man Seminar Poster/EMSP Rhodesian Man-text.pdf
5| Ibid.
6| L. Rook, et al., The taxonomic status and biochronological implications of new finds of Oreopithecus
     from Baccinello (Tuscany, Italy); Journal of Human Evolution, 30: 3-27; (1996). See at: Rook et al.pdf
7| [registration may be required]
8| Those Sophisticated Cave Men, Page 2: The Lussac Stone Age Portraits;
9| Clottes, Jean, Paleolithic Art in France; Bradshaw Foundation, Adorant magazine (2002). Also see:
10| Léon Péricard, Stéphane Lwoff, 'La Marche, commune de Lussac-les-Châteaux (Vienne): Premier
     atelier de Magdalénien III à dalles gravées mobiles (campagnes de fouilles 1937-1938)', Bulletin de
     la Société préhistorique française 37.7-9 (1940:149-54); 154 Stéphane Lwoff, 'Fouilles Péricard et
     Lwoff à La Marche (Vienne) - Industrie de l'Os', Bulletin de la Société préhistorique française 39.1/2
11| Op cit.
12| Steven Mithen, After the ice: a global human history, 20,000-5000 BC; Harvard University Press.,
     Cambridge, Mass.; (2006).
13| Ibid.
14| Peter James, Nick Thorpe, Ancient Inventions, Ballantine Books, p. 57; (1994). Also see:
15| Sandro L. Bonatto, Francisco M. Salzano, "A single and early migration for the peopling of the
     Americas supported by mitochondrial DNA sequence data"; Proceedings of the National Academy
     of Sciences 94: 1866–1871; (1997).
16| Mark Owen Webb, Suzanne Clark, Anatomy of an Anomaly, Disputatio 6 (May, 1999); see Also see
17| Ibid.
18| S.L. VanLandingham, Corroboration of Sangamonian Age of Artifacts From the Valsequillo Region
     Puebla Mexico By Means of Diatom Biostratigraphy, Micropaleontology, Volume 50, Number 4,
     pp 313-342; (2004).
 19| S.L. VanLandingham, Diatom Evidence For Autocthonous Artifact Deposition In the Valsequillo
     Region Puebla Mexico During Sangamonian (sensu lato = 80,0000 to ca. 220,000 yr BP [before
     present] and Illinoian (220,000 to 430,000 yr BP)), Journal of Paleolimnology, Volume 36,
     Number 1, pp 101-116, (Jul 2006).
20| E. James Dixon, Quest for the Origins of the First Americans; Albuquerque: University of New
     Mexico Press, p. 128; (1993).
21| Ibid, pp. 111-112.
22| Albert C. Goodyear, et al., The Topper Site: Beyond Clovis at Allendale, Mammoth Trumpet,
     volume 16, no. 4, (Sept, 2001). See: 16_4.pdf
     For excellent pictures also see
23| N. MacLeod, et al., The Cretaceous–Tertiary biotic transition, Journal of the Geological Society
     154 (2): 265–292; (1997).
24| Mary H. Schweitzer, JL Wittmeyer, Jack R. Horner ["Dinosaur Jack"], JK Toporski, Soft-Tissue
     Vessels and Cellular Preservation in Tyrannosaurus rex; Science 307(5717):1952-1955; (2005).
25| For a thorough discussion with links see:
26| Glen J. Kuban, Dinosaur Valley State Park (1992); see: Also see: for a number of links to critical analysis of similar claims.
27| Javier Cabrera, The Message of the Engraved Stones of Ica [excerpted], see
28| Robert T. Carroll, The Skeptic's Dictionary: a collection of strange beliefs, amusing deceptions,
     and dangerous delusions, New York: Wiley, pp. 169–71; (2003).
29| J. R. Arnold, W. F. Libby, Age Determinations by Radiocarbon Content: Checks with Samples of
     Known Age; Science 110 (2869): 678–680; (1949).
31| W. Plastino, L. Kaihola, P. Bartolomei, F.  Bella, Cosmic Background Reduction In The Radiocarbon
     Measurement By Scintillation Spectrometry At The Underground Laboratory Of Gran Sasso,
     Radiocarbon 43 (2A): 157–161; (2001).
32| G.B. Dalrymple, et al., Age and thermal history of the Geysers plutonic complex (felsite unit),
     Geysers geothermal field, California: a 40Ar/39Ar and U–Pb study; Earth and Planetary Science
     Letters, 173, 285–298; (1999).
33| Richard Restak, "Fixing the Brain". Mysteries of the Mind; Washington, D.C.: National Geographic
     Society; (2000).
34| Valerie A. Andrushko and John W. Verano, Prehistoric Trepanation in the Cuzco Region of Peru: A
     View Into an Ancient Andean Practice; American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 137:4–13;
35| John R. Mangiadi, MD FACS, History of the Operating Room, Optimus Services LLC; see Also see (on line): Stone Age Surgery,
      Discover Magazine, September, 1997:
36| C. W. Ariens Kappers, Medicine: Kappers Cures; Time Magazine, Monday, July 02, 1928.
37| The translation of 'giants' in Genesis chapter 6 has been disputed; the Septuagint translates the term
     as 'giants', and that may be where the modern translation derives; the root word in Hebrew just means
     'to fall' and nephilim could be translated 'the fallen'.
38| James Owen, "Skeleton of Giant" Is Internet Photo Hoax, National Geographic News, December 14,
     2007; also see:
39| For example, the 'physics forum':
40| Johnson-Smith, American Science Fiction TV: Star Trek, Stargate and Beyond; I B Tauris & Co
     Ltd.; (Jan. 2005).

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