Evolution is any change across successive generations in the heritable characteristics of biological populations. Evolutionary processes give rise to diversity at every level of biological organisation, including species, individual organisms and molecules such as DNA and proteins. 'The whole vital process of the earth takes place so gradually and in periods of time which are so immense compared with the length of our life, that these changes are not observed'; Aristotle, Treatise on Meteorology1|.' Authors Hall and Hallgrímsson go on to explain, 'Although in the traditional view, Darwin could not deal with the problem of the long geological periods of time needed for life to evolve, he did made [sic] some calculations based on rates of erosion that demonstrated the enormity of geological time2|.'
Graphic representation of earth's geological history

Graphical representation
of Earth's geological
history as a spiral

Joseph Graham, William
Newman, and John Stacy,

United States Geological
Survey; Available online at

For [hundreds of] millions of years human-like kind evolved and survived as 'hunter-gatherers'. This implies a family's daily subsistence on what it could find to eat and, as often as not, where it would spend the night as it moved its foraging from place to place. The environment around him was man's greatest support, and his greatest danger. This condition comprises the huge bulk of 'human history'.

According to current thought, humans remained hunter-gatherers, clinging to a perilous daily subsistence, until approximately 10,000 years ago [approximately 8,000 BCE.] Even after this date, much of human activity was limited to hunter-gatherer status while the new technology of 'agriculture' slowly grew across the face of the globe.

According to the modern Darwinian scenario, during these vast eons of time man slowly became smarter and smarter. Perhaps this laborious process had an accelerating component built in, but even that started from such primitive origins so long ago that a normal human life would likely see little or no change. First came the opposable thumb, then crude clubs and after untold ages we find evidence of primitive stone tools.

Darwinian philosophy assures us this scenario describes the complete history of human-kind: a slow incredibly long progress towards one small improvement after another. Certainly there are mountains of evidence to support this line of thinking. Is there any school child today that has heard otherwise?

During the modern era of archaeology - since about 1800 - some contrary evidence difficult to explain has cropped up here and there, but it has not been allowed to challenge the overwhelming consensus of slowly tedious progress over centuries as well as over ages.

One example of a problem that presented itself was the appearance of 'civilization', long believed to have been born in Sumer in Mesopotamia, between the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers. 'City-states' arose there in the fourth millennium BCE [around 3,500]; written language first appeared there about 3,000 BCE.

Why did this present a problem to evolutionists and their 'slow-development' theory? Simply because there was no precedent for any of it. Supposedly hunter-gatherers had somewhere along the line [since 8,000 BCE] developed a successful form of agriculture that allowed individuals to specialize in skills not directly connected to growing and harvesting food.

But what skills developed! Sumer explodes out of the desert sands with a highly organized social structure: civil government and taxes, roads and drainage, law enforcement, a regulated system of barter and currency, contracts, medical professionals including doctors and pharmacies, urban development... on and on. Obviously this would appear to be a sudden explosion and not a slow evolutionary process.

Quickly on the heels of the Mesopotamian explosion came Egypt about 3,300 BCE3|, and almost concurrently the Harappan civilization of the Indus Valley4|, all extremely complex social structures. This anomaly just remained critically unexplored and unexplained by the 'experts' for more than a century, and remains poorly explained today.

One curious facet of this rapid development was formation of complex religious thought and along with that a calendric system to define the exact length and seasons of the year. While the annual solar calculation of the Roman calendar at the time of Christ was still off by at least a quarter of a day, the Mayans of Meso-America had calculated the solar year as 365.2422 days5|; the modern calculation [2000] is 365.242189. The Maya left no evidence of possessing telescopes or any other optical technologies.

The Maya also recorded the planetary cycles of Venus6|, predicted eclipses, and, according to some, observed the 'great rift' in the Milky Way Galaxy7|.
Pyramids at Caral, Peru

Pyramids at Caral in
the Supe Valley of
Peru's arid Pacific
coast region -
approximately 100
miles north of Lima.

Photograph taken in
August, 2004 by
Hĺkan Svensson Xauxa

Pyramids have been discovered in the Andean Altiplano of Peru that are believed to possibly date to 3,000 BCE. The city of Caral in the Supe Valley is considered one of the earliest urban developments of the 'New World', dating to at least 2,600 BCE8|.

Some Chaldean astronomical calculations proposed that the planets circled around the Sun, predicted eclipses [the Saros Cycle], and used a somewhat complicated lunisolar calendar, whereby the length of the lunations and the solar year varied creating a 19-year calendar cycle. It has been surmised, however, that the Babylonian / Chaldeans had calculated the sidereal year to be 365.258 days, an error of about 2 minutes for the latter part of the fourth century BCE9|. Some scholars believe that their astronomical calculations implied knowledge that the world was a globe, not flat.

The Greek astronomer Hipparchus extrapolated data from the Chaldean calculations and identified precession; Precession is the process whereby the polar axis of the earth's rotation slowly inscribes a circle among the distant band of fixed stars [much as a spinning top wobbles as it slows down]; the complete precessional cycle consumes approximately 26,000 years before the 'polar star' returns to its original designation10|.

The Egyptians are believed to have borrowed their calendar from the Chaldean / Babylonian records. It has become well known that these ancient cultures were capable of detailed observations and complex mathematical calculations that yielded reasonable accurate astronomical data.

All of these cultures were able to construct lasting megalithic monuments that used the cosmic data to align their structures. This has led to a fairly new discipline within the study of archaeology: archeoastronomy. R.M. Sinclair11| has defined archeoastronomy as the study of how people in the past 'have understood the phenomena in the sky, how they used phenomena in the sky, and what role the sky played in their cultures.' This does not necessarily presuppose that their astronomical observations align with our present measurements, but that they were making and using such observations is becoming increasingly apparent.

Perhaps the most obvious example is the three pyramids on the Giza Plateau in Egypt. The famous Egyptologist Flinders Petrie [1853-1942] pointed out that the Great Pyramid was perhaps the most accurately north-facing structure in the world until recent times12|. In more recent times it has been proposed that the three pyramids are linearly aligned the same as the three stars of the constellation Orion's belt13|. The proposed date of the building of the Great Pyramid is about 2550 BCE.
Diagram of Meshowe chambered passage tomb
Diagram of Maeshowe chambered passage tomb.

What then about the site of the mound of Maeshowe on Mainland Orkney, Scotland? It is estimated to date to about 3,000 BCE. A Neolithic chambered cairn, the entrance passage is aligned with the central chamber in such a way that the midwinter sun shines a beam of light directly onto the back wall of the central chamber. Other alignments combining natural hilly slopes and standing stones have led one expert observer to state, 'Maeshowe is thus an extremely sophisticated calendar site which must have been positioned carefully in order to use the horizon foresights in the ways described14|.'

Another famous megalithic site is, of course, Stonehenge. The first constructions at the site probably were started about 3,100 BCE. Many astronomical alignments, solar and lunar, have been proposed for the various building stages of Stonehenge15|. Originally archaeologists were prone to describe the building of the huge megalithic complex as a means for farmers to ascertain the best times for planting and harvesting. Even to this author as a young untrained reader such a scenario seemed preposterous. Would farmers have so much spare time on their hands as to spend hundreds of years transporting and lifting huge blocks of stone, while surveying the alignments for accurate astronomical determination of the seasons? While the purpose of Stonehenge is still in controversy, it appears the farmers have finally been allowed to return to their plowing.
Diagram of Chaco Canyon 'Sun Dagger' petroglyph

Diagrammatical representation
of the Chaco Canon 'Sun
Dagger' petroglyph.

Diagram obtained at

Even at the site of the Pueblo culture in Chaco Canyon we find astronomical alignments, and a possible allusion to the supernova that created the Crab Nebula in a petroglyph located at Peńasco Blanco [see previous scission.] The recently publicized 'Sun Dagger' at Fajada Butte is formed by three stones leaning against the wall of the butte in front of a spiral petroglyph. It is claimed to mark the solstices, equinoxes and the lunar stand-stills of the 18.6 year cycle of the moon. Various structural sites and connecting roads are believed also to be laid out on astronomically important angles16|.

What we can deduce from these impressive scientific efforts of our ancestors all over the world during the age of recorded history is that they were perhaps nearly as smart as today's humans - and a lot more scientifically capable than the average person in the twenty-first century.

History: As We Are Learning It

Thus we see that a reasonably advanced and organized agriculture supports a more technically specialized cultural community. We saw above that historians date the beginning of agriculture around 8,000 BCE. Some of the civilizations that have emerged on the historical stage were mentioned above.

Prior to advanced agriculture humankind survived by being hunter-gatherers. The Paleolithic, or Early Stone Age, dates from about 3 million years ago to as late as 10,000 BCE [varying a bit from location to location.] The Mesolithic, or Middle Stone Age is somewhat generally dated from 20,000 BCE to 9,500 BCE, especially in Europe. The Neolithic, or New Stone Age, somewhat ambiguously overlaps the Mesolithic dates but extends from about 10,500 to approximately 4,500 BCE.
Location of Nabta PlayaBasic megalithic layout at Nabta Playa
Graphics of location and
layout of Nabta Playa
pre-historic site obtained at
For more information
see Wikipedia

Consider Nabta Playa. Sometime between 10,000 and 8,000 BCE people began to construct an organized culture with large villages believed to be based around domestication of livestock. It is located in what is now the Nubian Desert 800 kilometers south of modern day Cairo, about 100 kilometers west of Abu Simbel in southern Egypt. At that time the region experienced a much wetter climate.

Dating to at least 8,000 BCE evidence appears of large organized settlements depending on deep wells for year-round farming and pastorage17|. Not only does it appear that they were domesticating wild cattle and sheep, but certainly by the late seventh millennium they were importing goats and sheep from southwest Asia. Early settlements in the area can be dated as early as 11,000 BCE.

Between 6,500 and 4,000 BCE a number of megalithic structures were erected in the area. One circle of stones is considered to be a calendar. Astrophysicist Thomas G. Brophy identifies a line of three stones within the circle as mirroring the belt of the constellation of Orion18|. He claims three other stones within the circle outline the head and shoulders of Orion as they appeared between 6,400 and 4,900 BCE and at precessional opposition.

The circle is made of relatively smaller stones, but there are megalithic stones positioned nearby. Brophy estimates the alignment of the megalithic stones with the circle could point to a date of approximately 6270 BCE19|. Some of Brophy's dates have been challenged by as much as 1,500 years.

It is more widely accepted that the megalithic alignments corresponded to the summer and winter solstices. The area is believed to have become the focus of a 'regional ceremonial center' around 6,100 to 5,600 BCE. There is evidence of large numbers of sacrificial cattle bones scattered about the area.

Notwithstanding, the astronomical and mathematical expertise required to calculate and align such structures must be considered impressive. While the motivation given for such activity is often given as religious, as it was originally speculated it was for the convenience of farmers determining the seasons, some hypothesize that the ancients were trying to predict widespread catastrophes such as floods, climate anomalies such as droughts and even cosmic events.

In southeast Turkey is a site dating to about 10,000 BCE that staggers the imaginative skills of scholars. On a long mountain ridge 15 km northeast of the town of Şanlıurfa, Turkey stands the recent find known as Göbekli Tepe. It is apparently a huge megalithic ceremonial center dating to the Neolithic period.
Representation of expanded site
This is an artist's rendering of the
potentially expanded site of Göbekli
Tepe; geophysical surveys have
found 20 of these circles with more
than 200 pillars weighing up to 20
tons each. 4 circles have so far been

The site's homepage is in German;
English information can be found
at Wikipedia

Archaeologists say it was built by a society of hunter-gatherers. The hilltop location apparently holds about 20 circular stone structures, four of which have been excavated. The center of each circle contains two massive 'T-shaped' limestone pillars with others distributed about the circumference. The pillars weigh between 10–20 metric tons. One pillar still in the quarry about 1,000 feet away weighs 50 tons.

There is a developed village settlement nearby, Nevalı Çori, which dates from the second half of the ninth millennium to well into the tenth millennium BCE. The site is classified 'pre-pottery Neolithic' due to fired ceramic figurines, supposedly of religious use, in the absence of similarly fired pottery.

The building of the ceremonial site 'must have required a staggering amount of manpower and labor20|.' The circles vary from 30 to 100 feet across. Many of the pillars have carved relief figures of animals - a great variety of animals - a few unknown today. Some observers have even pointed out the proximity of Mount Ararat and wondered about some association with the aftermath of the flood of Noah.

Apparently the people who built and utilized this site abandoned it abruptly, and opted to bury the whole huge shrine in the sands. No definite reason has been offered for such a surprising outcome.

A number of flint tools are found at the site. We are told that these Neolithic hunter-gatherers used these flint tools to carve the huge T-shaped pillars and the animal reliefs carved upon them. Archaeologists point to stratification layers at the site and surmise that the building activity took place over several millennia possibly stretching back to the early Mesolithic [?]. That would equate with the building of the English Parliament structure extending from the time of Julius Caesar until today... quite a dedication to a single human purpose. Just one thousand years ago in Britain they were speaking Anglo Saxon; today only scholars can read and understand the language. Perhaps a few millennia are necessary to accomplish such a mammoth task as building the Göbekli Tepe complex with primitive stone tools. Could that be accomplished with no written language? ...with no established legal system? ...with no organized social structure? After all: they were hunter-gatherers!

The French archaeological site at Glozel, a hamlet in central France, typifies the controversies that cloud modern analysis. A young farmer, Emile Fradin, found some curious artifacts in a burial chamber in 1924 including sculptures and vases, some of which were inscribed with symbols or letters, and a number of clay tablets also inscribed with an unknown script. Two self-acclaimed 'experts' came upon invitation and used pickaxes to break up one of the chambers, carrying off whatever they found.

Their published finds attracted the attention of Antonin Morlet, a Vichy physician and amateur archaeologist; he paid an annual fee for the right to excavate. Starting work in May, 1925, Morlet claimed he was 'unearthing unimaginable wonders: arrowheads and shafts carved in bone, flint tools, carved pebbles, rings bearing cabbalistic signs, stone axe heads, harpoons, hermaphrodite idols, ornamented oblong urns, some human bones and bits of stoneware pottery21|.' He dated the site as 'Neolithic (up to 7000 BCE)'. Some of the artifacts he dated to the Magdalenian (some 17,000 years ago).

In 1927 the 'established experts' intervened and claimed the whole site, except some of the pottery fragments, were false and forgeries. Dr. Morlet accused one of the investigating archaeologists of tampering with the site in order to prove fraud. On 8 January 1928, Fradin filed suit for defamation against René Dussaud, curator at the Louvre and noted epigrapher.

The leading archaeologist and epigraphist Emile Esperandieu, however, began to speculate that the historically earliest writing had originated, not around 3300BC in the Middle East [Sumer], but perhaps around Glozel several millenia earlier.

Still, in 1927, at the instigation of Felix Regnault, president of the French Prehistoric Society, police raided the Fradins' farm, searched their home, broke open display cases containing some of the finds and bore them off for police analysis by Gaston-Edmond Bayle, head of the criminal records office in Paris. The site was closed by law until 1983 when the Ministry of Culture allowed reopening of excavations. The official report dated the site to around 500 - 1500 CE with, perhaps, some earlier Iron Age objects.

In 1928 another group of 'independent archaeologists' dated the site as 'Neolithic'22|. Glass found at Glozel was dated spectrographically in the 1920's and 1990's as 'medieval'. In 1974 a new dating method for ceramics called Thermoluminescence found inconclusive dates: some between 300 BCE and 300 CE, some 'medieval' [13th century]. The dating of the 'Glozel tablets' has been left a bit ambiguous; officially they are apparently dated from third century BCE to first century CE.
Glozel ceramic vase GF301

This Glozel artifact is labeled 'Decorated
ceramic vase GF301'. Some of the
enigmatic writing is visible at the top.

Photo by Robert Liris

The writing on the tablets remains an enigma. Many claims are offered, not very conclusively: Basque, Chaldean, Eteocretan, Hebrew, Iberian, Latin, Berber, Ligurian, Phoenician and Turkic23|. This author would probably be labeled 'fringe' if he claimed it was 'Proto-Phoenician'. Sumerian scripts [pre-3,000 BCE were in cuneiform characters, which were pronounced syllabically; Egyptian scripts [ca. 3,000 BCE] are hieroglyphic characters, also pronounced syllabically. Phoenician [or Proto-Canaanite, ca.1050 BCE], or later Canaanite/Semitic, are true alphabets and currently considered the first known alphabetic characters.

If the Glozel tablets were to predate Phoenician they could constitute the earliest alphabet then known to exist. If such script were to be dated to, say, 17,000 years ago [15,000 BCE] the consequence would have momentous implications. Obviously such claims would have to be rigorously defended, and critics are unlikely to approach the end result without trepidation.
Artist's representation of Yonaguni underwater formation

Artist's representation
of ambiguous under-
water formations at
Yonaguni, Japan.
Picture taken from
The History Channel

The Far East enters the pre-history debate with a huge underwater curiosity off the coast of Yonaguni, southern Japan. Called the 'Yonaguni Underwater Formation' it is a massive underwater layered rock formation. At a depth of 75 feet it is hotly debated whether the site is a natural formation or an ancient 'temple monument'. The structure measures approximately 490 feet by 130 feet and about 90 feet tall, the top being about 16 feet below the surface of the ocean. Apparently the stones are not 'assembled' as a pyramid or ziggurat, but rather possibly carved out of the underlying rock, which is a very fine sandstone of the Lower Miocene Yaeyama Group, deposited about 20 million years ago.

The 'monument' consists of a complex series of terraces and broad steps, mostly rectangular, bounded by near vertical walls. The debate centers around whether the site is completely natural, is a natural site that has been modified, or is a man-made artifact. Diving investigators claim to see 'pillars', two, close together, that rise to within 8 feet of the surface; a 'totem', a stone column about 23 feet tall; a low star-shaped platform called the 'Turtle'; a triangle-shaped pool with two large depressions at its edge; and a 'loop road', a 16 foot wide terrace that circumnavigates the base of the structure on three sides24|.

If the site has been worked by humans, it would most likely have to have been prior to the end of the last ice age [ca. 11,000 BCE], when ocean levels were much lower due to trapped water in the ice.

Geologist Robert Schoch of Boston University believes it is mainly a natural formation, although possible worked some by humans. He points out that it occurs in a natural earthquake zone, and earthquakes tend to fracture rocks in a regular somewhat geometric pattern25|.

Mentioning Dr. Robert Schoch reminds this author how the geologist 'threw a fox into the henhouse' of Egyptologists concerning the Great Sphinx of Egypt. For centuries the head of the Sphinx stuck out of the desert sands of the Giza Plateau. In recent times it was decided to excavate around the Sphinx and uncover the buried body. Today we see not only the head but the lion's body and long forearms with a granite slab, known as the Dream Stele, placed by the young Thutmose IV (1401–1391 or 1397–1388 BCE) upon the first known excavation of the front paws.

Upon uncovering the body a puzzling enigma presented itself: severe erosion, especially water erosion. Dr. Schoch describes the damage thus, 'Precipitation-induced weathering is seen on the body of the Sphinx and in the ditch or hollow in which it is situated. This gives a rolling and undulating vertical profile to the weathered rocks and is very well-developed and prominent within the Sphinx enclosure26|.' [emphasis added by this author]

The Sphinx is dated by Egyptologists as having been built during the reign of the pharaoh Khafra (ca. 2558–2532 BC). We pointed out above concerning Nabta Playa that the last rainy period in the Egyptian desert region was 8,000 to 10,000 BCE. Obviously the two dates are incompatible and have caused controversy.

In the Bolivian Andean Altiplano south of Lake Titicaca at an elevation of 13,000 feet and near La Paz lies Puma Punku. The site presents enigmas that will likely cause controversy for the foreseeable future. Carbon dating has placed the earliest age of the site as approximately 500 CE. Professor Arthur Posnansky (1873 - 1946), engineer, entrepreneur and La Paz city council member, spent half his lifetime studying and writing about Tiahuanaco and neighboring Puma Punku. He is respected as an avocational archaeologist. Using some of the principles of archeoastronomy he dates the site to at least 10,000 years old27|.
Puma Punku

This picture of Puma Punku
[Gate of the Puma] was
taken by Clark Erickson and
shows both the large size of
some of the stones as well as
how scattered the debris

The enigmas of Puma Punku are not limited to its age, however. The stones strewn around the destroyed site present unsolvable puzzles. One stone slab of the 'Plataforma Lítica' is estimated to weigh 131 metric tons. Some of the stones have a polished surface; microscopic examination has shown that the smooth surfaces could not be duplicated today without some minor flaws appearing due to laser burning or scratches scribed by circular diamond cutting wheels. Furthermore, some of the stones have a precision-made 6 mm wide groove, precise width and depth lengthwise, which contains equidistant drilled holes along and within the indentation.
Crpped picture of perforated grooved stone

This author cropped and enhanced
this picture from Wikipedia; it shows
the straight narrow groove cut into
the hard
stone at Puma Punku and
the equidistant holes drilled inside
the groove.
The picture is credited by Wikipedia
to Matt Corbitt

Some of the 'building blocks' have a dovetailed tongue-in-groove configuration allowing them to be inseparably interconnected. There are receding rectilinear indentations in many of the blocks [rabbets], and they are all so perfectly duplicated as to be considered 'mass produced'. Engineers say such stone shaping could only be done today with computer-controlled cutting instruments.

Many stones have bow-tie shaped grooves on the edge of their surfaces for strapping blocks together. These 'clamps' are metal composed of an unusual alloy – 95.15% copper, 2.05% arsenic, 1.70% nickel, 0.84% silicon and 0.26% iron.. The most likely reason for these clamps and the tongue-in-groove dovetail constructs is to strengthen the structures against earthquakes, which would likely have been prodigious in the region over time28|.

Nowhere in the world is there any evidence of such advanced stone work and architecturally designed structural strength before modern times, at least known to this author. The site is high on the Altiplano where there are no trees for 'rolling logs'. In fact, supporting the large 'primitive' population it would have required for construction with food and shelter would have been quite a challenge.

Yet, despite this incredible planning, the site was destroyed, some say by earthquake, some by tidal wave from Lake Titicaca or a world-wide flood. Some of the building stones that needed at least tools of diamond hardness to carve them were shattered into pieces. All over the site, according to some observers, are pieces of carved stone shattered and broadcast over a wide area; one explanation of this mystery is the intrusion of a large meteorite.

There is no evidence of any written records to help ascertain who the builders were or when they lived. Indeed, how did they 'mass produce' so many duplicate stone blocks without any blueprints or specifications? To date, there is no way of knowing the anwers to such questions.

History: As We Imagine It

No discussion of early civilized history and pre-historic civilizations can be complete without some mention of Atlantis. In 360 BCE the Greek writer, Plato, mentioned the early otherwise undocumented pre-historic civilization in Timaeus and in Critias29|. Modern concepts of Atlantis as a technologically advanced culture may be biased by modern interpretations by various commentators. Plato wrote of the Atlanteans as a militaristic culture from 'beyond the Pillars of Hercules' seeking to subjugate Europe and Africa. He does detail some of their architectural creativity.

Nor does Plato claim first hand knowledge of his subject. He claims to have learned it from Solon, an Athenian lawgiver in the 6th century BCE, who visited Egypt and was shown a pillar [or papyrus] full of Hieroglyphs that were translated for him as the story of the ancient Atlantis continent and its war with the Athens city-state [?]. There has been scepticism about Plato's story almost from the beginning.

Whether Atlantis existed or not, and whether it was technologically advanced, really need not impinge upon our present discussion: the misuse or suppression of difficult historical data.

        [All web links acquired in Spring of 2014]
1| Quoted in: B. K. Hall, B. Hallgrímsson, eds.; Strickberger's Evolution (4th ed.); Jones & Bartlett, p. 14; 2008.
2| ibid, p. 41.
3| Nicolas Grimal, A History of Ancient Egypt; Blackwell Books, 1992.
4| Raymond Allchin, (ed.), The Archaeology of Early Historic South Asia: The Emergence of Cities
     and States, New York: Cambridge University Press, 1995.
5| James Q. Jacobs, "Mesoamerican Archaeoastronomy: A Review of Contemporary Understandings of
     Prehispanic Astronomic Knowledge"; Mesoamerican Web Ring:
6| The Dresden Codex quoted in Michael Finley, "The Correlation Question"; The Real Maya
     Prophecies: Astronomy in the Inscriptions and Codices; Maya Astronomy
7| Anthony Aveni, The End of Time: The Maya Mystery of 2012; University Press of Colorado, Boulder; 2009.
8| Ruth H. Shady, Winnifred J. Creamer, 'Dating Caral, a Pre-ceramic Site in the Supe Valley on the
     Central Coast of Peru', Science; 292:723-726, (2001).
9| Willy Hartner, "Al-Battānī, Abū ʿAbd Allāh Muḥammad Ibn Jābir Ibn Sinān al-Raqqī al-Ḥarrānī al–Ṣābi";
     Dictionary of Scientific Biography, New York: Charles Scribner's Sons; (1970–80). Also see
10| ibid
11| R.M. Sinclair, "The Nature of Archaeoastronomy"". In Todd W. Bostwick and Bryan Bates, Viewing
     the Sky Through Past and Present Cultures; Selected Papers from the Oxford VII International
     Conference on Archaeoastronomy; Pueblo Grande Museum Anthropological Papers, 15; City of
     Phoenix Parks and Recreation Department, pp. 13–26; (2006).
12| J. A. Belmonte, "On the Orientation of Old Kingdom Egyptian Pyramids"; Archaeoastronomy:
     Supplement to the Journal for the History of Astronomy 32 (26): S1–S20; 2001.
13| Graham Hancock, Fingerprints of the Gods; New York: Three Rivers Press, p. 168; 1996.
14| E. MacKie, Science and Society in Prehistoric Britain; Paul Elek; 1977.
15| Clive Ruggles, Michael Hoskin, "Astronomy Before History". In Michael Hoskin volume, The
     Cambridge Concise History of Astronomy; Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1999; p. 6.
16| A. Sofaer, ed.; Chaco Astronomy: An Ancient American Cosmology; Santa Fe, New Mexico: Ocean
     Tree Books; 2008.
17| Fred Wendorf, J. McKim Malville, "The Megalith Alignments"; in Holocene Settlement of the
     Egyptian Sahara, vol. I, pp. 489–502 (2001).
18| Thomas G. Brophy, Ph.D., The Origin Map: Discovery of a Prehistoric, Megalithic, Astrophysical
     Map and Sculpture of the Universe, p. 19; Universe, 2002.
19| Ibid.
20| Steven Mithen, After the Ice: A global human history, 20,000-5000 BC., p. 66; Harvard University
     Press, Cambridge MA, 2004.
21| Obituary of Emile Fradin, The Telegraph, 04 Mar, 2010. See at:
22| Ibid. The news story has a fairly precise but complete accounting.
23| Alice Gerard; see:
24| Ancient Discoveries: Lost Cities of the Deep, History Channel, season #4, episode #1; Jan 2008.
25| Robert Schoch, An Enigmatic Ancient Underwater Structure off the Coast of Yonaguni Island, Japan;
     1999; See: Yonaguni Underwater RMS CT.htm
26| Dr. Robert M. Schoch, J.A. West, Redating the Great Sphinx of Giza, Egypt; Geological Society of
     America, abstracts with programs 25:5 (1991). Also see: Redating the Great Sphinx of Giza, (1992): the Great Sphinx of Giza.htm
27| Arthur Posnansky, Tihuanacu, the Cradle of American Man, Vols. I - II (Translated into English
     by James F. Sheaver), J.J. Augustin, 1945.
28| Jean-Pierre Protzen, Stella E. Nair, On Reconstructing Tiwanaku Architecture; Journal of the
     Society of Architectural Historians, Vol. 59, No. 3 (Sep., 2000), pp. 358-371; published by:
     University of California Press; view at:
29| There is one earlier account by historical story teller Hellanicus of Lesbos [490-405 BCE] titled
     Atlantis; only a few fragments survive. It is apparently a genealogical tale of the daughters of Atlas;
     atlantis in Greek means 'of Atlas'. Some scholars believe that Hellanicus derived his tale from an
     unknown earlier work; see John V Luce, (S. Casey Fredericks, J. Rufus Fears, Dorothy B. Vitaliano,
     Herbert E. Wright Jr.), "The Literary Perspective"; Atlantis, Fact or Fiction?; Edwin S. Ramage, ed.;
     Indiana University Press, p. 72; 1978.

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